History 880

Media Coverage of Recent American Wars

Wednesday, 4:00 to 6:45, Hardin 230

Fall term, 2008

Prof. Edwin E. Moise
Office: Hardin 102
Office phones: 656-5369, 656-3153
Home phone: 654-7087

Messages can be left in my mailbox in Hardin 124, or in the box on my office door.

Office Hours

    Monday     10:10-11:00, 2:30-3:20
    Tuesday    11:00-12:00
    Wednesday  10:10-11:00, 2:30-3:20
    Thursday   11:00-12:00
    Friday     10:10-11:00 

Course Objectives

To examine and analyze the way the media (primarily American media) have covered the Vietnam War, and the two wars the United States has fought against Iraq (1991, and 2003- ).

What goes into your grade

The most important single part of your grade will be the research paper. You can write it on whatever topic you please, within the limit of the subject matter of this course.

For more detailed guidelines on the term paper, see the relevant sections of Writing a Term Paper in Military History.

The paper is due Friday, December 5.

You can have a pretty free choice of topics for this paper, within the limits of the subject matter of this course. You must come in and talk to me about your paper, and discuss the sources you will be using. It is not enough to say to me as we are walking out of the classroom in the evening, "Professor Moise, is it OK if I write about the media covered the Marine Corps component of Operation Desert Storm?" You will need to talk things over with me for fifteen minutes or maybe half an hour, not just a few seconds. After we have talked, you must give me a written statement of your topic, with a list of the main sources you plan to use. I would like to have this by September 15. You will not be totally locked in to what you put on this written statement; minor alterations are normal and major ones are possible.

Papers must be based mainly on primary sources. Do not take anyone's word about what appeared in the media; look yourself at the actual words, and, if possible and relevant, images. But to supplement the actual texts and/or videos you use, you may want to consult other works. You can get guidance about these from my Bibliography of the Vietnam War (especially the section of it on the Media) and my Iraq Wars Bibliography.

Every student will give a presentation in class on the topic of his/her paper. This will provide an opportunity for feedback and suggestions. You also must submit a written preliminary draft of your paper for me to look over, no later than November 19, and you will need to arrange to meet with me before you leave town for Thanksgiving, to get my reactions to your preliminary draft.

In alphabetical rotation, one student will be asked, before each class, to think of two questions for discussion, dealing with the readings assigned for that class, and send them to me by e-mail.

The paper is worth 150 points. The other written work will be:
    --Four short papers on assigned topics, worth 40 points each.
    --The final exam, which is take-home (questions given out December 3, due December 10), 120 points.

There will be 150 points possible for class participation (not counting the five extra points that you can get for catching me in a mistake). Of your 150 points for class participation, 50 will be for your in-class presentation on your research paper topic.
This adds up to 580 points. The basic grade scale is that 90% (522 points) is the bottom of the A range, 80% (464 points) is the bottom of the B range, and so on. Sometimes I alter the scale in the students' favor, never against them. Thus 522 points (90% of 580) is a guaranteed A; 520 or 515 points might be an A, depending on how the rest of the class does.

Academic Integrity Policy

Academic integrity requires that we not try to pass other people's work off as our own.

I have never caught a student committing plagiarism in a graduate seminar. But experience with plagiarism in upper-level undergraduate courses at Clemson suggests that if there were to be a plagiarism case in this course, it would probably involve a student copying large portions of the research paper from published and/or online sources. Typically this involves both large amounts of material quoted word-for-word, without quotation marks, and also a serious shortage of source notes pointing to the book, web site, or whatever from which the material came. Often there are misleading source notes claiming the material came from some source other than the one from which it was actually copied word-for-word. These false source notes are especially strong evidence of deliberate dishonesty.

Policy on late work

If you do not do written work on time, then with any reasonable excuse you will be able to make it up. However, you will be marked off for lateness. You will be marked off even if your excuse is very, very good. You can avoid a penalty only if I have told you before the work was due that you would be able to do it late without penalty.

If I am Late

If I have not gotten to class by 4:05, I would be grateful if a student would go bang on my office door and see whether I am there. If I still have not arrived by 4:10, you can give up on me and leave.

Assigned reading

There are two books all students should buy:
    The "Uncensored War", by Daniel Hallin.
    Hotel Warriors, by John Fialka.

I will also want each student to choose a different book from the following list, and report what it says during an class that deals with events that were covered in that book. You also will write a book report on the book you have chosen.
    Live from the Battlefield, by Peter Arnett.
    Malcolm W. Browne, Muddy Boots and Red Socks: A Reporter's Life.
    Ron Steinman, Inside Television's First War: A Saigon Journal.
    John Mecklin, Mission in Torment.
    Live from Baghdad, by Robert Wiener.
    John Lee Anderson, The Fall of Baghdad.
    Richard Engel, War Journal: My Five Years in Iraq
    Bill Katovsky and Timothy Carlson, eds., Embedded: The Media at War in Iraq, an Oral History.

I encourage you also to keep track of what is appearing about the Iraq War in the New York Times and other media outlets.

Course Outline

The following course outline is tentative. It may be modified slightly by class request or as a result of shifts in what I find practical to place online, or as a result of unforseen events. It is also incomplete; I have listed the topics we will cover, but most of the assigned reading has not yet been added.

Note: The easiest way to get newspaper articles is through the Clemson Library's Newspaper Articles Access Page. This has links to the databases containing articles from The New York Times up to 2003, the Wall Street Journal up to 1990, the Washington Post up to 1990, and The Times of London up to 1985. It also has a link to LexisNexis, which has a huge collection of articles from a great many publications from about 1990 up to the present.

August 20: Introduction to the course.

August 27: The Vietnam War in the Kennedy Administration was a guerrilla struggle. Kennedy began putting Americans into combat about the beginning of 1962, but avoided a public announcement of this. There was a pretense the Americans were only advisors. There was some conflict between senior government officials saying the war was being won, and some reporters who said things were not going well. During 1963, Kennedy became convinced things really were not going well, and allowed US officials to encourage a military coup that overthrew Ngo Dinh Diem, the president the United States had been supporting in South Vietnam.
>>> Hallin, pp. 3-58.
>>> Moise, The Vietnam Wars, part 6 (parts 1-5 are optional).
>>> David Halberstam, "South Vietnamese Inflict A Major Defeat on Reds," New York Times, September 19, 1962.
>>> David Halberstam, "Vietnam Rebels Enlarge Forces," New York Times, September 25, 1962.
>>> David Halberstam, "Diem Asserts Red Guerrillas Are on Defensive," New York Times, October 2, 1962, 1963.
>>> David Halberstam, "Vietnamese War Stops for Lunch," New York Times, October 14, 1962.
>>> David Halberstam, "Our G.I.'s Fight a 'Private War' in Vietnam," New York Times, November 4, 1962.
>>> David Halberstam, "Vietnam Heartened by Major Victory Over Reds," New York Times, November 27, 1963.
>>> David Halberstam, "Vietnam Reds Push New Tactic," New York Times, December 17, 1963.
>>> David Halberstam, "Vietcong Downs Five U.S. Copters, Hits Nine Others," New York Times, January 3, 1963.
>>> "War Without Will," Wall Street Journal, January 10, 1963.
>>> David Halberstam, "Rift With Saigon on War Tactics Underlined by 2 Red Attacks," New York Times, September 16, 1963.
>>> Defense Department Memorandum for the President on Halberstam's article, September 21, 1963.
>>> Eight articles of your own choosing about the Buddhist crisis, which began in May 1963 in a confrontation pitting some radical Buddhists against the Diem government, and ended with the military coup that overthrew and killed Diem and his brother Nhu in November 1963.

September 3: In 1964 and the first half of 1965, President Johnson slid the United States into a much deeper involvement, in as unobtrusive a fashion as possible. The media did not get very excited about this.
>>> Hallin, pp. 59-101
>>> Max Frankel, "Vietnam Holds Strategic Importance," New York Times, November 3, 1963, E4.
>>> "Opportunity in Vietnam" (editorial), New York Times, November 3, 1963, E8.
>>> Hedrick Smith, "Johnson Pledge Bolsters Saigon," New York Times, January 2, 1964, p. 7.
>>> Hedrick Smith, "Rise in Red Arms to Vietnam Is Seen," New York Times, January 5, 1964, p. 1.
>>> "Fight in Vietnam Rages for 3d Day," New York Times, December 30, 1964, p. 1.
>>> Peter Grose, "Viecong Routed in Refugee Town," New York Times, December 31, 1964, p. 1.
>>> "Six-Day Battle at Binh Gia Ends in Defeat for Saigon," New York Times, January 3, 1965, p. 1.
>>> "Russian Missiles to Combat Aircraft Reported in Hanoi," New York Times, February 17, 1965, p. 10.
>>> Jack Langguth, "U.S. Jet Bombers Attack Vietcong; First Such Strike," New York Times, February 25, 1965, p. 1.
>>> John W. Finney, "Hanoi Aggression Detailed by U.S. in White Paper", New York Times, June 9, 1965, pp. 1, 32.
>>> John W. Finney, "Johnson Permits U.S. Units to Fight if Saigon Asks Aid", New York Times, February 28, 1965, p. 1.
>>> "Ground War in Asia" (editorial), New York Times, June 9, 1965, p. 46.
>>> John W. Finney, "U.S. Denies Shift on Troop Policy in Vietnam War", New York Times, June 10, 1965, p. 1.

September 10: In the second half of 1965, the involvement of US troops became a lot more conspicuous, with the Battle of the Ia Drang Valley drawing special attention. The scale of combat increased further in 1966 and 1967.
>>> Hallin, pp. 114-158
>>> "Johnson's Moves: Arms and Diplomacy" New York Times, August 1, 1965, page E1. (This was the lead story in Section 4 (News of the Week in Review) of the Sunday paper.
>>> "Red Arms Dump Bombed" New York Times, August 1, 1965, page 3.
>>> Robert Trumbull, "Okinawa B-52's Anger Japanese" New York Times, August 1, 1965, page 4.
>>> Charles Mohr, "G.I.'s Contesting Vietcong at Night" New York Times, August 2, 1965, page 2.
>>> "Burning of Village Described," New York Times, August 4, 1965.
>>> "The 'Real War'," New York Times, August 15, 1965, page E1.
>>> Neil Sheehan, "G.I.'s Fight Heavy Battle In Foothills Near Pleime," New York Times, November 15, 1965, page 1.
>>> Neil Sheehan, "G.I.'s Inflict Heavy Losses on North Vietnam Troops," New York Times, November 16, 1965, page 1.
>>> "U.S. Units Pull Out After Killing 637k," continued by Neil Sheehan, "Regulars Attack 5 Times," New York Times, November 17, 1965, pp. 1, 3.
>>> Neil Sheehan, "G.I.'s Under Fire Again in Valley in South Vietnam," New York Times, November 18, 1965, page 1.
>>> Hedrick Smith, "U.S. Saigon Aides Assert No Bombs Fell Inside Hanoi," New York Times, December 16, 1966, page 1.
>>> Harrison Salisbury, "A visitor to Hanoi Inspects Damage Laid to U.S. Raids," New York Times, December 25, 1966, page 1.
>>> Harrison Salisbury, "U.S. Raids Batter 2 Towns; Supply Route is Little Hurt" New York Times, December 27, 1966, pp. 1, 2, 3.
>>> "Raids' Precision Seen in Reports," New York Times, December 30, 1966, p. 2.
>>> George C. Wilson, "Salisbury 'Casualties' Tally with Viet Reds'," Washington Post, January 1, 1967, page A1.
>>> "Hanoi Dipatches to Times Criticized" New York Times, January 1, 1967, p. 3.
>>> NOTE: The two articles dated January 1, 1967, immediately above, discuss the question of whether Harrison Salisbury, in one of his articles of December 27, 1966, had copied material from a North Vietnamese propaganda pamphlet, Report on U.S. War Crimes in Nam-Dinh City. I have put on a page HERE the passages from the pamphlet that Assistant Secretary of Defense Phil G. Goulding picked as representing the best evidence that Salisbury had been copying material from the pamphlet.
>>> "The Delta". Life Magazine, January 13, 1967, pp. 22-31.
>>> Six articles of your own choosing, published in August of 1967.

September 17: The Tet Offensive of 1968, and its aftermath.
>>> Hallin, pp. 159-177
>>> Editorial, "Demonstration," Washington Post, October 21, 1967, page A12.
>>> William Chapman, "GIs Repel Pentagon Charge; 50,000 Rally Against War," Washington Post, October 22, 1967, page A1.
>>> Hedrick Smith, "Westmoreland Says Ranks of Vietcong Thin Steadily," New York Times, November 22, 1967, p. 1.
>>> James Reston, "Why Westmoreland and Bunker Are Optimistic," New York Times, November 22, 1967, p. 46.
>>> Hedrick Smith, "Optimists vs. Skeptics," New York Times, November 24, 1967, p. 2.
>>> Tom Buckley, "U.S. Cuts Estimate of Foe's Strength," New York Times, November 25, 1967, p. 3.
>>> Questions for discussion about the four items dated November 22 to 25, above: How optimistic were US government spokesmen at this time? How much did the press accept this optimism?
>>> Tom Buckley, "Vietcong Attack 7 Cities; Allies Call Off Tet Truce," New York Times, January 30, 1968, p. 1.
>>> Under the main headline that starts "Foe Invades U.S. Saigon Embassy" in the New York Times, January 31, 1968, p. 1, there are two stories: Charles Mohr, "U.S. Aide in Embassy Villa Kills Guerrilla With Pistol" (continued on p. 2) and Tom Buckley, "Ambassador Safe" (continued on p. 3). Read both articles, and then consider: How serious did the Tet Offensive look in these articles?
>>> Charles Mohr, "Vietcong Press Guerrilla Raids," New York Times, February 1, 1968, pp. 1, 14.
>>> Charles Mohr, "Street Clashes Go On in Vietnam," New York Times, February 2, 1968, pp. 1, 12. (Especially consider the photos in this article, and how the photos are discussed.)
>>> Bernard Weintraub, "Saigon's Soldiers Battle Big Force Close to Capital," New York Times, February 12, 1968, pp. 1, 3.
>>> Neil Sheehan, "U.S. Undervalued Enemy's Strength Before Offensive," New York Times, March 19, 1968, pp. 1, 3. Based on documents that Daniel Ellsberg (later to become famous in the "Pentagon Papers" case) leaked to Sheehan.
>>> Neil Sheehan, "'68 Gain was Seen by Westmoreland," New York Times, March 21, 1968, pp. 1, 11.
>>> Hanson W. Baldwin, "Vietnam: In the Field, More of the Same 'Gradualism'," New York Times, March 31, 1968, p. E4.

September 24: By 1969, the war had become unpopular enough so President Nixon began to withdraw American forces. There was quite a lot of negative coverage.
>>> Hallin, pp. 178-210
>>> "Attacks on North Vietnam Halt Today; Johnson Says Wider Talks Begin Nov. 6," New York Times, November 1, 1968, pp. 1, 11.
>>> Editorial, "A Step Toward Peace," New York Times, November 1, 1968, p. 46.
>>> Editorial, "The Halt and Its Unknowns," Wall Street Journal, November 4, 1968, p. 18.
>>> Robert B. Semple, Jr., "Nixon Asks Troop Pullout in a Year and Would Join Vietnam Political Talks," New York Times, May 15, 1969, pp. 1, 16.
>>> "Main Vietcong and U.S. Points," New York Times, May 15, 1969, p. 16.
>>> Max Frankel, "What Nixon Didn't Say," New York Times, May 15, 1969, p. 17.
>>> Editorial, "Mr. Nixon's Vietnam Program," New York Times, May 15, 1969, p. 46.
>>> Tom Wicker, "Returning to Saigon," New York Times, May 15, 1969, p. 46.
>>> "G.I.'s, in 10th Try, Fail to Rout Foe on Peak in Ashau," New York Times, May 20, 1969, pp. 1, 4.
>>> Editorial, "Talking With President Thieu," New York Times, May 21, 1969, p. 46.
>>> "Enemy Is Driven from Ashau Peak in 11th Attempt," New York Times, May 21, 1969, pp. 1, 5.
>>> Hedrick Smith, "Kennedy Assails Vietnam Tactics," New York Times, May 21, 1969, pp. 1, 4.
>>> C.L. Sulzberger, "Foreign Affairs: The Spin-Out," New York Times, May 21, 1969, p. 46.
>>> B. Drummond Ayres, Jr., "War Disillusions Many G.I.'s in Vietnam", New York Times, August 4, 1969, p. 3.
>>> Editorial, "Still in the Quagmire," New York Times, September 12, 1969, p. 42 (this is the editorial that people were talking about on pp. 186-187 of Hallin).
>>> Ralph Blumenthal, "'Pervasive' Racial Unrest Is Found in Armed Forces", New York Times, Novemer 29, 1969, pp. 1, 10.
>>> Robert M. Smith, "G.I. Says He Saw Vietnam Massacre", New York Times, November 20, 1969, pp. 1, 14. (This deals with what is commonly called the My Lai Massacre.)
>>> Read six other articles, of your own choosing, published in 1969 and/or 1970, dealing with the My Lai massacre.

October 1: By 1972, the last US ground troops pulled out. There was a major controversy over the "Christmas Bombing" of North Vietnam in December 1972, the brutality of which was greatly exaggerated. US bombing of Vietnam was ended in January 1973. Summary discussion of the Vietnam War.
>>> Hallin, pp. 211-215.
>>> "Nixon Sends Combat Forces to Cambodia To Drive Communists from Staging Zone" (under this headline read two articles, "Not an Invasion" and "G.I.'s and Bombers Begin Drive on Foe's Sanctuary"), New York Times, May 1, 1970, pp. 1, 2, 3.
>>> Terence Smith, "Allied Drive Ahead in Cambodia," New York Times, May 2, 1970, pp. 1, 3.
>>> Terence Smith, "4th Thrust Into Cambodia Is Made by U.S. Brigade," New York Times, May 6, 1970, pp. 1, 18.
>>> John W. Finney, "Arms for Cambodia Voted; Congress Bars Troop Use," New York Times, December 23, 1970, pp. 1, 7
>>> Alvin Shuster, "G.I.'s in Vietnam High on Hope's Marijuana Jokes," New York Times, December 23, 1970, p. 2
>>> "Saigon General Says Enemy Has Pulled Back 15,000 Men," New York Times, September 16, 1971, p. 4.
>>> Iver Peterson, "Saigon Reports Heavy Losses For Its Units and Foe in Battle," New York Times, September 18, 1971, p. 11.
>>> Donald Kirk, "Who Wants to be the Last American Killed in Vietnam?" New York Times sunday magazine, September 19, 1971, pp. 9, 59-
>>> The big headline in New York Times, October 27, 1972, p. 1, was, "Kissinger Asserts That 'Peace Is at Hand'; Saigon Says It Will Agree to a Cease-Fire." Below this were a bunch of stories, of which I want you to read three:

>>>> Editorial, "Peace At Last?," New York Times, October 27, 1972, p. 40.
>>> William Beecher, "Nixon Said to Weigh Steps To Put Pressure on Hanoi," New York Times, December 18, 1972, pp. 1, 5
>>> Anthony Lewis, "So It Goes," New York Times, December 18, 1972, p. 39.
>>> William Beecher, "A New Target List," New York Times, December 19, 1972, pp. 1, 14
>>> "Bombs Away . . ." New York Times, December 19, 1972, p. 42.
>>> Roger B. Linscott, editorial, ""Christmas Comes to Vietnam"" The Berkshire Eagle, (December 25?), 1972. December 19, 1972, p. 42.
>>> Read eight other articles, of your own choosing, published between December 25, 1972, and January 31, 1973, dealing either with the American bombing of North Vietnam, or the peace negotiations and the peace agreement signed January 27, 1973. An issue to consider: The press became more critical of U.S. policy in late December 1972 than it had been at any previous time during the Vietnam War. How far did this go in the news articles, how far did it go in the editorials and opinion pieces?

October 8: The US makes the decision to go to war against Iraq: 1990-1991
>>> "In Two Arab Capitals, Gunfire and Fears, Victory and Cheers," New York Times, August 3, 1990, p. A8.
>>> Editorial "Iraq's Naked Aggression," New York Times, August 3, 1990, p. A26.
>>> Thomas L. Friedman, "Mission by Cheney," New York Times, August 6, 1990, pp. A1, A7.
>>> On August 8, 1990, the huge headline in the New York Times was "Bush Sends U.S. Force to Saudi Arabia as Kingdom Agrees to Confront Iraq." Under this, read the article by Andrew Rosenthal, "Seeks Joint Action" (pp. A1, A8).
>>> Editorial "The U.S. Stands Up. Who Else?" New York Times, August 9, 1990, p. A22.
>>> Edward N. Luttwak, "Iraq will Be Tough to Dislodge," New York Times, August 9, 1990, p. A23.
>>> A.M. Rosenthal, "Saddam's Next Target," New York Times, August 9, 1990, p. A23.
>>> Rich Atkinson, "U.S. to Rely on Air Strikes if War Erupts," Washington Post, September 16, 1990, pp. A1, A36. (The reporter's main source for the information in this article was General Michael J. Dugan, the Air Force Chief of Staff. Secretary of Defense Cheney was furious, and promptly fired General Dugan.)
>>> John F. Burns, "Iraq Blockade, Babies And the Milk Dispute," New York Times, October 5, 1990, p. A9.
>>> Ann Devroy, "Bush Orders 200,000 More Troops to Gulf," Washington Post, November 9, 1990, pp. A1, A32.
>>> Patrick E. Tyler, "New Deployment Signals U.S. Switch to Offensive," Washington Post, November 9, 1990, pp. A1, A30.
>>> William Raspberry, "Waiting for Saddam," Washington Post, November 9, 1990, p. A27.
>>> "Amnesty Report Says Iraqis Tortured and Killed Hundreds," New York Times, December 20, 1990, p. A21.
>>> R. W. Apple, Jr., "Gloom in Washington," New York Times, January 10, 1991, p. A1.
>>> Patrick E. Tyler, "Hussein's Vision for G.I.'s: Swim in Their Own Blood'". New York Times, January 10, 1991, p. A15.
>>> Eric Schmitt, "U.S. Battle Plan: Massive Air Strikes," New York Times, January 10, 1991, p. A17.
>>> Editorial, "The Larger Patriotism," New York Times, January 10, 1991, p. A24.
>>> "US Battle Strategy Discussed," CBS Evening News, January 11, 1991, transcript on LexisNexis.
>>> Adam Clymer, "Legislators Take Sides for Combat Or for Reliance on the Sanctions," New York Times, January 11, 1991, pp. A1, A11.
>>> Michael deCourcy Hinds, "Antiwar Effort Buds Quickly, Nurtured by Activism of 60's," New York Times, January 11, 1991, pp. A1, A9.
>>> Malcolm W. Browne, "American Pilots Anticipate Tough but Brief Battle," New York Times, January 15, 1991, p. A11.
>>> At least six items of your own choosing, dates between November 1, 1990, and January 15, 1991, of which at least three should discuss the question of whether the United States should go to war against Iraq, and at lest three should discuss the question of what would happen in such a war if it occurred.

October 15: The air war against Iraq: 1991

>>> Newspaper articles available through ProQuest

>>> Available through LexisNexis >>> Research exercise. Similar to the first, but choose articles from the the period January 20 to February 15, 1991.

October 22: The ground war against Iraq: 1991
>>> Fialka, Hotel Warriors
>>> Patrick E. Tyler, "Iraqi Revolt Urged". New York Times, February 16, 1991, pp. 1, 4.
>>> Michael R. Gordon, "Ground Strategy: Focus on Rear Line." New York Times, February 16, 1991, pp. 1, 18.
>>> John H. Cushman, Jr., "U.S. Insists Withdrawal Comes Before Cease-Fire" New York Times, February 16, 1991, p. 8.
>>> Editorial, "If Iraq Really Wants Peace". New York Times, February 16, 1991, p. 26.
>>> Editorial, "For Lasting Peace: Tougher Terms". New York Times, February 20, 1991, p. A26.
>>> Edward N. Luttwak, "Stop the Clock on the Ground War . . ." New York Times, February 20, 1991, p. A27. [When reading this one, ask yourself: Luttwak was giving a very inaccurate picture of U.S. battle plans. Was he being grossly irresponsible if he thought he was spilling real plans? Do you think somebody who knew the real truth had deliberately spilled an inaccurate version of the plans to Luttwak, to mislead the Iraqis?]
>>> Tom Wicker, "What's the Real Goal?" New York Times, February 20, 1991, p. A27.
>>> Anthony Lewis, "It Is a Victory." New York Times, February 22, 1991, p. A29.
>>> "Transcripts of Statements by Bush and Fitzwater on Unconditional Pullout ." New York Times, February 23, 1991, p. 4.
>>> Philip Shenon, "U.S. Squadron Poised At the Unknown's Edge." New York Times, February 24, 1991, p. 16.
>>> Chris Hedges, "Near Border, Iraq's Silence Was No News." New York Times, February 24, 1991, p. 18.
>>> Patrick E. Tyler, "Administration Says Hussein Must Declare Pullout Himself." New York Times, February 26, 1991, p. A1.
>>> R. W. Apple, Jr., "American and British Troops Gird for an Iraqi Last Stand." New York Times, February 27, 1991, p. A1, A18.
>>> John H. Cushman Jr., "Experts Back U.S. on Rules of War." New York Times, February 27, 1991, p. A21.
>>> Michael R. Gordon, "Allied Rush to Cut Off Hussein's Elite Forces." New York Times, February 27, 1991, p. A19.
>>> Elaine Sciolino, "Hussein's Errors: Complex Impulses." New York Times, February 28, 1991, p. A10.

Consider as you read these articles: How coherent an impression did the press have of U.S. goals? How coherent a view would it be reasonable to ask the press to have had?

>>> Read at least six transcripts of TV broadcasts, from LexisNexis: At least three broadcasts between February 15 and February 23, discussing issues relating to the ground war that had not yet begun, and at least three broadcasts between February 25 and February 28.

October 29: The United States prepares to go to war against Iraq: 2002-2003
>>> Joseph Lieberman and John McCain on "Hardball," MSNBC, December 6, 2001, LexisNexis
>>> Michael E. Hanlon and Philip H. Gordon, "Is Fighting Iraq Worth the Risks?" New York Times, July 25, 2002, p. A17.
>>> Editorial, "Warning Shots on Iraq," New York Times, August 16, 2002, p. A16.
>>> William Safire, "Saddam and Terror" New York Times, August 22, 2002, p. A23.
>>> “Threats and Responses: The Iraqis; U.S. Says Hussein Intensifies Quest for A-Bomb Parts,” by Michael R. Gordon and Judith Miller. New York Times September 8, 2002.
>>> Vice President Cheney on “Meet the Press” (NBC), September 8, 2002, LexisNexis.
>>> Eric Schmitt, "Rumsfeld Says U.S. Has 'Bulletproof' Evidence of Iraq's Links to Al Qaeda," New York Times, September 28, 2002, p. A9.
>>> "Iraq's Future: New Polity or Pandora's Box?," New York Times, September 29, 2002, p. D14.
>>> Serge Schmemann, "Iraq (Will) (Won't) Respect America if It Waits," New York Times, September 29, 2002, p. D14.
>>> Daniel Benjamin, "Saddam Hussein and Al Qaeda Are Not Allies," New York Times, September 30, 2002, p. A25.
>>> Eric Schmitt and Thom Shanker, "War Plan Calls for Precision Bombing Wave to Break Iraqi Army Early in Attack," New York Times, February 2, 2003, p. 12.
>>> Patrick E. Tyler and Janet Elder, "Poll Finds Most in U.S. Support Delaying a War," New York Times, February 14, 2003, pp. A1, A15.
>>> Robet D. McFadden, "From New York to Melbourne, Cries for Peace," New York Times, February 16, 2003, p. 1.
>>> Michael R. Gordon, "Iraq Strategy Is Seen as Delay and Urban Battle," New York Times, February 16, 2003, p. 1.
>>> David E. Sanger and Thom Shanker, "War Planners Begin to Speak of War's Risks," New York Times, February 18, 2003, p. A1.
>>> James Dao, "Damage Control: Battle Plan: Spare Iraq's Civilians," New York Times, February 23, 2003, p. WK1.
>>> Nicholas D. Kristof, "War and Wisdom," New York Times, February 7, 2003.
>>> New York Times Editorial, February 18, 2003, "Reuniting the Security Council". You can find this on LexisNexis.
>>> "Cheney Says U.S. Justified in Attacking Iraq," Associated Press, March 16, 2003. You can find this on LexisNexis: Power Search: All News Wires.
>>> George Monbiot, "A wilful blindness: Why can't liberal interventionists see that Iraq is part of a bid to cement US global power?", March 11, 2003. You can find this on LexisNexis: Power Search: Major World Publications.
>>> "Annan Says U.S. Will Violate Charter if It Acts Without Approval," New York Times, March 11, 2003.
>>> Read six other items, of your own choosing, published or broadcast between February 1 and March 16, 2003, dealing with the coming crisis.

November 5: Going to Baghdad: March-April 2003
>>> Colonel Glenn T. Starnes, USMC, "Leveraging the Media: the Embedded Media Program in Operation Iraqi Freedom." Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2004. v, 20 pp.
>>> Michael R. Gordon, "Aerial Pounding Intended to Push Iraq's Government Toward Brink," New York Times, March 22, 2003, pp. A1, B2.
>>> Steven Lee Myers, "For G.I.'s, a Dusty Drive Across Desert to the Euphrates and the First Iraqi Defense," New York Times, March 22, 2003, p. B4.
>>> Michael R. Gordon, "Allies and Iraqis Battle on 2 Fronts: In Crucial Step, U.S. Starts Push Near Baghdad," New York Times, March 24, 2003, pp. A1, B2.
>>> Jim Dwyer, "A Gulf Commander Sees a Longer Road," New York Times, March 28, 2003, pp. A1, B6.
>>> "Military Leaders at the Pentagon: 'It's a Bit Early for History to Be Written" New York Times, March 29, 2003, p. B16.
>>> David E. Sanger, "As a Quick Victory Grows Less Likely, Doubts Are Quietly Voiced in Washington," New York Times, March 30, 2003, p. B10.
>>> Bill Keller, "Rumsfeld and the Generals," New York Times, April 5, 2003, p. A13.
>>> Michael R. Gordon and Bernard E. Trainor, "Dash to Baghdad Left Top U.S. Generals Divided," The New York Times, March 13, 2006, pp. A1, A8.
>>> John M. Broder, with Eric Schmitt, "U.S. Attacks On Holdouts Dealt Iraqis Final Blow," New York Times, April 13, 2003, pp. B1 B10.
>>> John F. Burns, "U.S. Tanks Make Quick Strike Into Baghdad: Defiant Iraqis Say U.S. Push was Thwarted," New York Times, April 6, 2003, pp. A1, B6.
>>> John F. Burns, "Capital Has Look of a Battlefield," New York Times, April 8, 2003, pp. A1, B3.
>>> John F. Burns, "3 Journalists Die in U.S. Strikes on 2 Baghdad Buildings," New York Times, April 9, 2003, p. B3.
>>> John F. Burns, "Cheers, Tears, and Looting in Capital's Streets," New York Times, April 10, 2003, pp. A1, B3.

November 12: Occupation leads to guerrilla war: 2003-2005
>>> Michael R. Gordon, "Iraqi Saboteurs' Goal: Disrupt the Occupation," New York Times, June 28, 2003, p. A5.
>>> Amy Waldman, "Guilty or Not, U.S. Is Blamed in Mosque Blast," New York Times, July 2, 2003, pp. A1, A16.
>>> Edmund L. Andrews, "In Day of Violence in Iraq, Attacks from All Directions," New York Times, July 2, 2003, p. A16.
>>> Patrick E. Tyler, "Overseer Adjusts Strategy As Turmoil Grows in Iraq," New York Times, July 13, 2003, pp. 1, 10.
>>> Eric Schmitt and Thom Shanker, "With Hussein's Heirs Gone, Hopes Rise for End to Attacks," New York Times, July 23, 2003, pp. A1, A8.
>>> Eric Schmitt, "2 U.S. Officials Liken Guerrillas to Renegade Postwar Nazi Units," New York Times, August 26, 2003, p. A10.
>>> Eric Schmitt, "Test in a Tinderbox," New York Times, April 28, 2004, pp. A1, A8.
>>> John Kifner and Edward Wong, "Marines Transfer Falluja Positions to an Iraqi Force," New York Times, May 1, 2004, pp. A1, A5.
>>> Alex Berenson and John F. Burns, "8-Day Battle for Najaf: From Attack to Stalemate," New York Times, August 18, 2004, pp.
>>> John F. Burns and Erik Eckholm, "In Western Iraq, Fundamentalists Hold U.S. at Bay," New York Times, August 29, 2004, pp.
>>> Lt. Gen. David H. Petraeus, “Battling for Iraq,” Washington Post, September 26, 2004, op-ed, B7.
>>> Michael R. Gordon, et al., "Catastrophic Success," three-part series, New York Times, October 19, 20, and 21, 2004.
>>> Richard A. Oppel Jr., Eric Schmitt, and Thom Shanker, "THE REACH OF WAR: Insurgents, a Reassessment and American Priorities," New York Times, September 17, 2005, p. A6.
>>> Dexter Filkins and John Burns, "Iraqis Cast Votes on Constitution to Shape Future," New York Times, October 16, 2005, p. A1.
>>> Read eight other items, of your own choosing, published or broadcast in 2005.

November 19: Violence between Sunnis and Shiites in Iraq became much worse in 2006. The United States responded with the "Surge," a substantial increase in US troop strength.
>>> Sabrina Tavernise and Dexter Filkins, “Local Insurgents Tell of Clashes with Al Qaeda’s Forces in Iraq.” New York Times 1/12/2006 on LexisNexis.
>>> James Glanz, “Iraq Utilities Are Falling Short of Prewar Performance.” New York Times 2/9/06 on LexisNexis.
>>> Thom Shanker, "General Says Training of Iraqi Troops Suffered From Poor Planning and Staffing." New York Times, 2/11/06 on LexisNexis.
>>> Robert F. Worth, "Blast at Shiite Shrine Sets Off Sectarian Fury in Iraq." New York Times, 2/23/06 on LexisNexis.
>>> Thom Shanker, “U.S. Changes Guidelines for Troops to Lessen Everyday Tensions With Iraqi Civilians” New York Times 5/2/2006.
>>> Dexter Filkins, “Armed Groups Propel Iraq Toward Chaos,” New York Times 5/24/06.
>>> "Will Zarqawi's Death Only Bolster Iraqi Insurgents?; Reports Vary Wildly on Alleged Haditha Massacre." Transcript of CNN program "Live From . . ." June 8, 2006 on LexisNexis.
>>> Thom Shanker, “New Guidelines Are Reducing Iraqi Civilian Death, Military Says,” New York Times 6/22/06.
>>> Sabrina Tavernise, “Fear Invades a Once-Comfortable Iraqi Enclave.” New York Times 6/24/06.
>>> Edward Wong, “Fearful Iraqis Avoid Mosques as Attacks Rise.” New York Times 8/19/06.
>>> Richard A. Oppel, Jr., “Sectarian Rifts Foretell Pitfalls of Iraqi Troops’ Taking Control.” New York Times 11/12/2006.

Thanksgiving: No Class November 26

December 3: Violence was subsiding by 2008. Summing up the course.

Research Paper Due December 5

Take-Home Final Exam Due December 10

Revised October 17, 2008.