Vietnam War Bibliography:

The Montagnards

Henry Bertrand, Un peuple oublié: les montagnards des hauts plateaux du Sud-Indochinois. Paris: Sudestasie, 1994. 126 pp.

Jean Boulbet, Pays des Maa', domaine des génies. Nggar Maa', Nggar Yaang. Essai d'ethno-histoire d'une population proto-indochinoise du Viêt Nam Central. Paris: Ecole Francaise d'Extreme-Orient, 1967. 152 pp.

George Condominas, We Have Eaten the Forest: The Story of a Montagnard Village in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. New York: Kodansha, 1994; previous English publication New York: Hill & Wang, 1977. French original Georges Condominas, Nous avons mangé le forêt de la Pierre-Génie Goo. Paris: Mercure de France, 1952. Condominas studied the Mnong Gar, 1948-49.

Po Dharma, Du FLM au FULRO: une lutte des minorités du sud indochinois, 1955-1975. Paris: Indes Savantes, 2006. 208 pp.

Homer E. Dowdy, The Bamboo Cross. Harrisburg, PA: Christian Publications, 1964. Also New York: Harper & Row, 1964. Protestant missionary work among the Montagnards.

Skaidrite Maliks Fallah, Customs and Taboos of Selected Tribes Residing Along the Western Border of the Republic of Vietnam. Washington, D.C.: Center for Research in Social Systems, The American University, February 1967. v, 45 pp. Research performed for the Department of the Army. The text has been placed online at the Virtual Vietnam Archive of the Vietnam Project, at Texas Tech University.

Gerald C. Hickey, The Highland People of South Vietnam: Social and Economic Development. Santa Monica: Rand, September 1967. RM-5281/1-ARPA. xiv, 190 pp.

Gerald C. Hickey, The Major Ethnic Groups of the South Vietnamese Highlands. Santa Monica: Rand, April 1964. RM-4041-ARPA. xi, 69 pp.

Gerald C. Hickey, Some Recommendations Affecting the Prospective Role of Vietnamese Highlanders in Economic Development.  Santa Monica: Rand, September 1971.  P-4708.  v, 66 pp.

Gerald C. Hickey, Sons of the Mountains: Ethnohistory of the Vietnamese Central Highlands to 1954. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982. xxi, 488pp.

Gerald C. Hickey, Free in the Forest: Ethnohistory of the Vietnamese Central Highlands, 1954-1976. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982. xxi, 350pp.

Gerald C. Hickey, Preliminary Research Report on the PMS. Michigan State University Vietnam Advisory Group, June 1957. A study of the Montagnards, with some translations from French scholars attached. The text has been placed online at the Virtual Vietnam Archive of the Vietnam Project, at Texas Tech University.

Gerald C. Hickey, "The Process of Ethnicity: A Focus on the People of the Vietnamese Central Highlands." 1976. 45 pp. The text has been placed online at the Virtual Vietnam Archive of the Vietnam Project, at Texas Tech University.

Gerald C. Hickey, Shattered World: Adaptation and Survival among Vietnam's Highland Peoples During the Vietnam War. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993. xxxiv, 297 pp.

Gerald C. Hickey, Kingdom in the Morning Mist: Mayrena in the Highlands of Vietnam. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1988. The story of a Frenchman who had dealings with the Kingdom of the Sedang in the 19th century. The full text is available online to paid subscribers of Questia.

Faris R. Kirkland, "Cultural Dynamics of Civic Action in the Central Highlands of Vietnam, 1967-1968," Armed Forced & Society, 26:4 (Summer 2000), pp. 547-560. In 1967, the U.S. Fourth Infantry Division began making more of an effort than was usual for U.S. combat divisions, to conduct Civic Action in Montagnard villages in Pleiku province.

Jean-Dominique Lajoux, Le tambour du déluge: villages des montagnes d'Indochine. Paris: Seuil, 1977. 125 pp.

Frank M. Lebar, Gerald C. Hickey, and John K. Musgrave, Ethnic Groups of Mainland Southeast Asia. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files Press, 1964. 288 pp. Vital reference work.

Albert-Marie Maurice, Croyance et pratiques religieuses des Montagnards du Centre-Vietnam. Paris: L'Harmattan, 2002. 420 pp.

Albert-Marie Maurice, Les Mnong des hauts-plateaux, Centre-Vietnam. Paris: L'Harmattan, 2002.

Jean Michaud, The Montagnards and the State in Northern Vietnam from 1802 to 1975: A Historic Overview. Ethnohistory 47:2 (Spring 2000), pp. 333-368.

Jean Michaud and Jan Ovesen, eds., Turbulent Times and Enduring People: Mountain Minorities in the South-East Asian Massif. London: Curzon, 1999.

Robert L. Mole, The Montagnards of South Vietnam: A Study of Nine Tribes. Rutland, VT: Tuttle, 1970. vii, 277 pp.

The Montagnards of South Vietnam. London: Minority Rights Group, 1974. Minority Rights Group Report no. 18. 29 pp.

Nguyen Trac Di, Tim hieu phong-trao tranh-dau F.U.L.R.O. (1958-1969). Saigon: Bo Phat-trien Sac Toc, 1969. 114 pp.

Thomas Pearson, "Missions and Conversions: Creating the Montagnard-Dega Refugee Community." Ph.D. dissertation, Philosophy of Religion, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2001. 379 pp. AAT 3007865. Looks at the interaction of Montagnards with Christianity both in Vietnam and in North Carolina.

Pham Thanh Bien, et al., Cuoc khoi nghia Tra Bong va mien tay Quang Ngai (The uprising in Tra Bong and western Quang Ngai). Hanoi: NXB Quan Doi Nhan Dan, 1975. 154 pp. The uprising in 1959 that has been treated, in Communist historiography, as a crucial beginning point of the Second Indochina War.

Plan d'action sociale pour les pays montagnards du sud du Domaine de la couronne. [Saigon?]: Éditions de la Délégation impériale du Domaine de la couronne, 1953. 51 pp.

Oscar Salemink, The Ethnography of Vietnam's Central Highlanders: A Historical Contextualization, 1850-1990. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003. xxviii, 383 pp. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2003.

Oscar Salemink, "Ethnography as Martial Art: Ethnicizing Vietnam's Montagnards 1930-1954," in Peter Pels and Oscar Salemink, eds., Colonial Subjects: Essays on the Practical History of Anthropology. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000.

Joann L. Schrock et. al., Minority Groups in the Republic of Vietnam. DA PAM 550-105. Washington: GPO, 1966. ix, 1163 pp. Prepared at the Cultural Information Analysis Center, American University, as one volume of the Ethnographic Study Series. When I purchased my copy from the National Technical Information Service (it was available there as item AD649980), what I got was simply a stack of loose paper, with holes punched so I could install it in a 3-ring binder, but the price was very reasonable. The full text has been placed online at the Virtual Vietnam Archive of the Vietnam Project, at Texas Tech University, in 23 sections: front matter and pp. 1-41 (Bahnar), pp. 42-94 (Bahnar, Bru, Cua), pp. 95- (Cua, Halang), pp. 147- (Halang, Hre), pp. 199- (Hre, Hroi), pp. 253- (Hroi, Jarai), pp. 305- (Jarai, Jeh, Katu), pp. 358- (Katu, Koho), pp. 410- (Koho, Ma), pp. 461- (Ma, M'nong), pp. 512- (M'nong, Muong), pp. 563- (Muong, Raglai, Rangao), pp. 616- (Rengao, Rhade), pp. 666- (Rhade), pp. 717- (Rhade, Sedang, Stieng), pp. 770- (Stieng, Binh Xuyen), pp. 823- (Binh Xuyen, Cao Dai, Cham), pp. 876- (Cham), pp. 928- (Cham, Chinese), pp. 978- (Chinese, Hoa Hoa), pp. 1031- (Hoa Hao, Khmer), pp. 1084- (Khmer, Indians and Pakistanis; indices for Bahnar through Hre), pp. 1137-1163 (indices for Hre through Indians and Pakistanis--there is a separate alphabetical index for each minority category).

Paul L. Seitz, Des hommes debout: les Montagnards du Sud-Vietnam. Paris: C. Simonnet, 1975. 170 pp. Trans. as Men of Dignity: The Montagnards of South Vietnam. Cambridge, England: J. Jackson, 1975. 170 pp.

"Situation of Ethnic Minority Movements in the Southwestern Highlands." English translation of a Communist document, CDEC Document Log Number 01-0511-70, possibly written in 1968, captured in Quang Duc province 29 April 1969. 29 pp. Discusses political struggle in Quang Duc, Phuoc Long, Lam Dong, Tuyen Duc, Ninh Thuan, and Binh Thuan provinces. The text has been placed online at the Virtual Vietnam Archive of the Vietnam Project, at Texas Tech University.

Hilary Smith, R.N., Lighting Candles: Hospital Memories of Vietnam's Montagnards. Barre, Vermont: Northlight Studio Press, 1988. ix, 109 pp. Hilary Smith went to work as a nurse at the Minh-Quy Hospital (run by Dr. Pat Smith), in Kontum, in 1971. Most of this deals with her experiences up to in April 1972, when Kontum seemed about to fall to PAVN forces in the Easter Offensive. Only a few pages at the end discuss her return later in 1972, after the threat had eased.

So tay ve cac dan toc o Viet Nam. Hanoi: Khoa Hoc Xa Hoi, 1983. 248 pp.

Jon Strandquist, "Local defence forces and counterinsurgency in Afghanistan: learning from the CIA's Village Defense Program in South Vietnam," Small Wars & Insurgencies, 26:1 (2015), pp. 90-113. Looks at the program in the early 1960s among the Rhade that later evolved into the CIDG program. Sources include unpublished writings of, and the author's interviews with, David Nuttle.

Stan B-H Tan, "'Swiddens, Resettlements, Sedentarizations, and Villages': State Formation among the Central Highlanders of Vietnam under the First Republic, 1955 1961." Journal of Vietnamese Studies, Vol. I, nos. 1-2 (February/August 2006), pp. 210-252.

"VC/NVA Motivation of Ethnic Minorities, MR 6." English translation of a Communist document, CDEC Document Log Number 01-0508-70, possibly written about 1965. A long-term summary, going back to 1954. The text has been placed online at the Virtual Vietnam Archive of the Vietnam Project, at Texas Tech University.

Nancy Dorcas Volk, "A Temporary Community in a Temporary World: A Montagnard Resettlement Area in Southern Vietnam." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, 1979. Deals mainly with the Koho, in Lam Dong (Tuyen Duc) Province.

Many of the books listed under Army Special Forces are about Special Forces units that worked with Montagnards.

There are a few works on the Montagnards listed under Reference Works Published by the U.S. Army

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Copyright © 1996, 1997, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2014, 2015, 2021, 2022, Edwin E. Moise. This document may be reproduced only by permission. Revised December 4, 2022.