Oluwasayo I. Abayomi, "Brreaking Silence: African-American Public Opinion of the Vietnam War, 1960-1970." Ph.D. dissertation, Political Science, Howard University, 2013. DA 3592936.
William Arce, "Nation in uniform: Chicano/Latino war narratives and the construction of nation in the Korean War and Vietnam War, 1951-1976." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern California, 2009. 291 pp. AAT 3355173. Looks at novels and autobiographies written by Chicano/Latino authors between 1951 and 1976.
Chalmers Archer, Jr., Green Berets in the Vanguard: Inside Special Forces, 1953-1963. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2001. xiv, 139 pp. Archer, who was black, participated in some of the earliest Special Forces activities in Vietnam and Laos. He was part of the detachment that trained what he refers to as Vietnamese Special Forces at Nha Trang in 1957; he served two tours in Laos, one with HOTFOOT in 1959, and one with WHITE STAR in 1961.
Gerald Astor, The Right to Fight: A History of African Americans in the Military. NOvato, CA: Presidio, 1998. x, 529 pp. Has two chapters, said to be pretty good, on the Vietnam War.
Beth Bailey, An Army Afire: How the US Army Confronted its Racial Crisis in the Vietnam Era. Chapel Hill: North Carolina Press, 2023 (forthcoming).
Lt. Gen. Julius W. Becton, Jr., Becton: Autobiography of a Soldier and Public Servant. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2008. 336 pp. Becton served in the 101st Airborne Division 1967-68, first commanding the 2/17 Cavalry, then the 3d Brigade.
Jim Belshaw, "Doris 'Lucki' Allen in Vietnam." VVA Veteran, 19:2/3 (February/March 1999), pp. 19, 40. A brief profile of an African-American enlisted woman who spent three years (October 1967 to September 1970) in U.S. Army intelligence in Vietnam. Her story is told at slightly greater length in Keith Walker, ed., A Piece of My Heart: The Stories of Twenty Six American Women who Served in Vietnam (Novato: Presidio, 1985), pp. 245-260.
Martin Binkin and Mark J. Eitelberg, Blacks and the Military. Washington: The Brookings Institution, 1982. xiv, 190 pp.
Dwight W. Birdwell and Keith William Nolan, A Hundred Miles of Bad Road: An Armored Cavalryman in Vietnam 1967-68. Novato: Presidio Press, 1997. Birdwell, a Cherokee, served on an M48 tank in the 3/4 Cavalry, 25th Division, beginning Sept. 1967; includes Tet Offensive in Saigon.
Samuel W. Black, Soul Soldiers: African Americans and the Vietnam Era. Pittsburgh: Senator John Heinz Pittsburgh Regional History Center, 2006. xviii, 218 pp.
Jinx C. Broussard, African American Foreign Correspondents [A History]. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2013. x, 268 pp. The chapter on the Vietnam War is pp. 174-93.
Gail Buckley, American Patriots: The Story of Blacks in the Military from the Revolution to Desert Storm. New York: Random House, 2001. pb (I think slightly revised) New York: Random House, 2002. xxviii, 541 pp. Chapter 10, "Vietnam," is pp. 368-432.
Emily Cheng, "The Vietnam War and Chicana/o Environmentalism in El Grito del Norte (1968–73)," American Quarterly 72:1 (March 2020), pp. 55-73. El Grito del Norte, published in Española, New Mexico, was unusual among Chicana/o newspapers in the degree of attention it gave to the Vietnam War.
Tom Cole, Medal of Honor Rag. New York: Samuel French, 1983. 53 pp. A one-act play, first produced (perhaps in an earlier version than the current one?) in 1975. The play depicts a one-hour therapy session, supposedly occurring in an Army hospital in 1971, in which a civilian psychiatrist is trying to treat a black sergeant who won the Medal of Honor in Vietnam, but has severe emotional problems. The handling of the sergeant's trauma looks pretty realistic to me. Partly it is survivor guilt, partly it is the bloody killing spree the man went on, killing large numbers of enemy soldiers--this was the action for which he won the Medal of Honor--but still leaving him severely disturbed about what he had done. But other elements of the play are very unrealistic. I get a feeling the author had never been in Vietnam, or in the military. The play is clearly based on the case of Dwight H. Johnson, who won the Medal of Honor for action near Dak To on January 15, 1968, and died April 30, 1971.
James T. Controvich, African Americans in Defense of the Nation: A Bibliography. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2011. 423 pp.
Juan David Coronado, I'm Not Gonna Die in This Damn Place: Manliness, Identity, and Survival of the Mexican American Vietnam Prisoners of War. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 2018. xxxv, 180 pp.
Captain Julius T. Crouch, USA, "The Black Junior Officer in Today's Army." Military Review, May 1972 (vol. LII, no. 5), pp. 61-67.
Delano Cummings, Moon Dash Warrior. Signal Tree, 1998. 282 pp. Cummings, a Lumbee Indian from North Carolina, served as a Marine.
James A. Daly and Lee Bergman, A Hero's Welcome. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1975. Re-issued as Black Prisoner of War: A Conscientious Objector's Vietnam Memoir. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2000. xxx, 267 pp. Daly, an Army private, was black and a conscientious objector who had never used a weapon in combat. He was captured in South Vietnam in January 1968. After his release in 1973, he was charged with having collaborated with the enemy while a prisoner.
Gil Dominguez, They Answered the Call: Latinos in the Vietnam War. Publish America, 2004. 220 pp.
Lawrence Allen Eldridge, "Chronicles of a Two-Front War: The African-American Press and the Vietnam War." Ph.D. dissertation, History, University of Illinois at Chicago, 2002. 434 pp. AAT 3047849. The full text is available online if you are browsing the Internet from an institution, such as Clemson University, that has a subscription to ProQuest "Dissertations and Theses: Full Text."
Lawrence Allen Eldridge, Chronicles of a Two-Front War: Civil Rights and Vietnam in the African American Press. University of Missouri Press, 2012.
Ed [Edwin L.] Emanuel, Soul Patrol. New York: Ballantine/Presidio Press, 2003. Foreword by Gary Linderer. xiv, 285 pp. Emanuel, an African-American from California, joined the army shortly after graduating from high school in 1967, arrived in Vietnam in June 1968, and was assigned to F Company, 51st Infantry, the LRP company serving II Field Force. It was probably about late August when he became a member of the all-black Team 2/6 within the company. In the reorganization of February 1, 1969, he was sent to O Company, 75th Infantry (the LRP unit of the 3d Brigade, 82d Airborne Division), with a lower average quality of leadership and personnel, and racial tension within the unit that F Company had not had. He did not attend Recondo School until late in his tour, March 1969. His tour lasted until early June.
Randall M. Fisher, Rhetoric and American Democracy: Black Protest through Vietnam Dissent. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1985. ix, 303 pp.
Alfred B. Fitt, oral history. Deputy Under Secretary of the Army for Manpower 1961-1963; Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Civil Rights 1963-1964; General Counsel of the Army 1964-1967; Assistant Secretary of Defense for Manpower and Reserve Affairs 1967- . He discusses a lot of personnel issues such as the draft, the role of blacks on the military, the role of the reserves, Project 100,000, etc. This oral history, from the collection at the LBJ Presidential Library, has been placed online in the Lyndon B. Johnson Oral History collection at the Miller Center for Public Affairs, University of Virginia.
John W. Flores, Marine Sergeant Freddy Gonzalez, Vietnam War Hero. Revised edition. Jefferson, NC: Mcfarland, 2014. 277 pp. Gonzalez won the Medal of Honor, posthumously, for his actions in the battle for Hue, 1968. (See also under Marroquin, below.)
Gregory A. Freeman, Troubled Water: Race, Mutiny, and Bravery on the USS Kitty Hawk. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. xviii, 246 pp. The race riot, which Freeman argues was in fact a mutiny, on the aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk, October 12-13, 1972 (see also below under Truhe).
Albert French, Patches of Fire: A Story of War and Redemption. New York: Anchor Doubleday, 1997. 304 pp. Memoir of service in Vietnam, and recovery from trauma, by a black Marine who was with E Co., 2/7 Marines, until badly wounded in December 1965.
Manny Garcia, An Accidental Soldier: Memoirs of a Mestizo in Vietnam. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2003. vi, 278 pp. Garcia served with the 101st Airborne Division, 1966-1967, and was seriously wounded.
James T. Gillam, War in the Central Highlands of Vietnam, 1968-1970: An Historian's Experience. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2006. viii, 331 pp. Gillam was drafted in 1968. He arrived in Vietnam in September 1969, and served as a sergeant in B Company, 1/22 Infantry, 4th Infantry Division. The book includes Operations Putnam Wildcat, Putnam Power, Hines, and Putnam Paragon, and the Cambodian Incursion of 1970.
Stanley Goff and Robert Sanders, with Clark Smith, Brothers: Black Soldiers in the Nam. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1982. xvi, 201 pp. pb New York: Berkley, 1985. xvi, 224 pp. Seriously exaggerates the proportion of African Americans among the American casualties in Vietnam.
Gerald F. Goodwin, "Race in the Crucible of War: African American Soldiers and Relations in the 'Nam'". Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio University, 2014, DA 3672171.
Osvaldo Fernandez Gordian, La guerra de Vietnam: tragedia puertorriquena. San Juan de Puerto Rico: 1994. 197 pp.
Herman O. Graham III, "Brothers for a Year: How African-American GIs became Men through Combat Friendships and Black Power during the Vietnam War." Ph.D. dissertation, History, University of Pennsylvania, 1999. 263 pp. DA 9937728. The full text is available online if you are browsing the Internet from an institution, such as Clemson University, that has a subscription to ProQuest "Dissertations and Theses: Full Text."
Herman Graham III, The Brothers' Vietnam War: Black Power, Manhood, and the Military Experience. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003. 179 pp.
Richard A. Guidry, The War in I Corps. New York: Ivy, 1998. 243 pp. Guidry, a black Marine, arrived in Vietnam April 1967, was assigned to B Company, 1/4 Marines near the DMZ, and served until May 1968.
Isaac W. Hampton, "The journey of African American officers through the Vietnam era." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Houston, 2008. 317 pp. AAT 3311737.
Isaac Hampton II, The Black Officer Corps: A History of Black Military Advancement from Integration through Vietnam. New York: Routledge, 2013. xiv, 241 pp. The Main focus is on the Army in the 1960s.
Shirley Ann James Hanshaw, "Re-membering and surviving: Representation of the Vietnam War and its aftermath in African-American Fiction." Ph.D. dissertation, American Literature, University of Mississippi, 2003. 345 pp. AAT 3115419. The full text is available online if you are browsing the Internet from an institution, such as Clemson University, that has a subscription to ProQuest "Dissertations and Theses: Full Text."
Charles Henderson, Jungle Rules: A True Story of Marine Justice in Vietnam. New York: Berkley Caliber (Penguin), 2006. xii, 479 pp. Centers on a legal case that occurred in the period 1967-1968. A black Marine, subject to racial harrassment, killed one of his white tormenters. Henderson says that although names and backgrounds of individuals have been changed, the events in the book are true, based on investigation records, court transcripts, and his conversations with a Marine Captain who was assigned to the Office of the Staff Judge Advocate, First Marine Aircraft Wing, Danang, at the time of the events. There is a pretty good subject index. But the sources Henderson cites could not have given him a lot of the details in this book, including many conversations. Those have to have been invented, so I would classifiy this as semi-fiction.
Chauncey C. Herbison, "B(l)ack to the World: Explorations of Race, Trauma, Illness, and Healing in Selected Vietnam War Films." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Kansas, 2006. Looks at four films: "Another Brother," "Ashes and Embers," "Green Eyes," and "Dumbarton Bridge." 230 pp. AAT 3222180.
Tom Holm, Strong Hearts and Wounded Souls: Native American Veterans and the Vietnam War. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1996.
For works by and about Martin Luther King, Jr., see under The Antiwar Movement.
Vincent J. Intondi, African Americans against the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons, Colonialism, and the Black Freedom Movement. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2015. 224 pp. Includes opposition to the vietnam War, not just opposition to nuclear weapons.
Geoffrey W. Jensen, Racial Integration of the American Armed Forces: Cold War Necessity, Presidential Leadership, and Southern Resistance. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2023. 432 pp. The period of Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon, and the Vietnam War, is pp. 190-286.
Natalie Kimbrough, Equality or Discrimination? African Americans in the U.S. Military During the Vietnam War. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2007. ix, 186 pp.
Woody Kipp, Viet Cong at Wounded Knee: The Trail of a Blackfeet Activist. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004. 157 pp. Kipp, who had served in Vietnam with the Marines, became an activist in the American Indian Movement (AIM).
Yvonne Latty, We Were There: Voices of African American Veterans, from World War II to the War in Iraq. New York: HarperCollins. The Vietnam War section, about fifty pages, has oral histories of eight individuals.
John A. Little, "Between Cultures: Sioux Warriors and the Vietnam War," Great Plains Quarterly 35:4 (Fall 2015), pp. 357-375.
Lt. Col. Fred J. Mabra, USA, "Manpower Utilization" Military Review, December 1966 (vol. XLVI, no. 12), pp. 92-97. The Army's use of African-American personnel, and associated problems.
Norman A. McDaniel, Yet Another Voice. New York: Hawthorn, 1975. 114 pp. A black USAF officer shot down over North Vietnam in 1966.
George Mariscal, ed., Aztlan and Viet Nam: Chicano and Chicana Experiences of the War. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998. xiii, 324 pp.
George Mariscal, "Mexican Americans and the Viet Nam War," in Marilyn B. Young and Robert Buzzanco, eds., A Companion to the Vietnam War (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002), pp. 348-366.
Sol Marroquin, Part of the Team: Story of an American Hero. Mission, TX: Rio Grande Printers, 1979. Marine Sergeant Freddy Gonzalez won the Medal of Honor, posthumously, for his actions in the battle for Hue, 1968. (See also under Flores, above.)
Jeremy P. Maxwell, Brotherhood in Combat: How African Americans Found Equality in Korea and Vietnam. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2018. xv, 207 pp.
Howard Means, Colin Powell: Soldier/Statesman - Statesman/Soldier. New York: Fine, 1992; pb New York: Ballentine, 1993. Powell arrived in Vietnam an LT1 advisor to the ARVN 1st Division in December 1962, and as a Major to serve as a battalion XO, later division G-3, in the Americal starting June 1968.
J. Boyd MorningStorm, The American Indian Warrior Today: Native Americans in Modern U.S. Warfare. Manhattan, Kansas: Sunflower University Press, 2004. 144 pp. MorningStorm, a Menominee, served 1966-67 in the USMC 1st Reconnaissance Battalion. The seven others in the book were in wars from WWII to Desert Storm.
Charles C. Moskos and John S. Butler, All that We can Be: Black Leadership and Racial Integration the Army Way. New York: Basic Books, 1996 (pb 1997). I am not sure how much of this deals with the Vietnam era.
Robert W. Mullen, Blacks and Vietnam. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1981. x, 99 pp.
Lorena Oropeza, ¡Raza Sí! ¡Guerra No! Chicano Protest and Patriotism During the Viet Nam War Era. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005. xviii, 278 pp.
David Parks, GI Diary. New York: Harmper & Row, 1968. 133 pp. Washington, DC: Howard University Press, 1984. xxi, 138 pp. Parks arrived in Vietnam January 1967. Personal names, unit designations, and some place names have been altered.
Lt. Gen. Frank E. Petersen, with J. Alfred Phelps, Into the Tiger's Jaw: America's First Black Marine Aviator. Novato, CA: Presidio, 1998. 416 pp. Petersen joined the Navy in 1950; he became the first black Marine aviator, and the first black Marine general. He flew in combat in Korea and Vietnam.
Kimberley L. Phillips, War! What Is It Good For? Black Freedom Struggles and the U.S. Military from World War II to Iraq. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012. xi, 343 pp.
Chapter 5: Machine Gun Blues: Black America and the Vietnam War
Chapter 6: Sing No More of War: Black Freedom Struggles and Antiwar Activism, 1960-1973
Colin Powell, with Joseph E. Persico, My American Journey. New York: Random House, 1995. x, 643 pp. Powell arrived in Vietnam an LT1 advisor to the ARVN 1st Division in December 1962, and as a Major to serve as a battalion XO, later division G-3, in the Americal starting June 1968.
Juan Ramirez, A Patriot After All: The Story of a Chicano Vietnam Vet. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1999. The full text is available online if you browse the Internet through an institution that is affiliated with netLibrary or if you are a paid subscriber of Questia.
Noah Riseman, "Indigenous Soldiers: Native American and Aboriginal Australian Service in Vietnam," in Nathalie Huynh Chau Nguyen, ed., New Perceptions of the Vietnam War: Essays on the War, the South Vietnamese Experience, the Disapora and the Continuing Impact (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2015).
Steven Rosales, "Macho Nation? Chicano Soldiering, Sexuality, and Manhood during the Vietnam War Era," Oral History Review 40:2 (2013), pp. 299-324.
Steven Rosales, Soldados Razos at War: Chicano Politics, Identity, and Masculinity in the U.S. Military from World War II to Vietnam. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2017. xiii, 305 pp.
Carina A. del Rosario, ed., A Different Battle: Stories of Asian Pacific American Veterans. Seattle: University of Washington Press/Wing Luke Asian Museum, 1999. 127 pp. With a historical essay by Ken Mochizuki and Carina A. del Rosario. Deals with several wars, not just Vietnam.
Jonathan Rosenberg, How Far the Promised Land: World Affairs and the American Civil Rights Movement from the First World War to Vietnam. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006. xiii, 316 pp.
Z. E. Sanchez, Tiger Mountain: Hispanics in the Vietnam War. Lulu, 2013. 232 pp.
Philippa Schuyler, Good Men Die. New York: Twin Circle, 1969. 256 pp. The book was published posthumously; Schulyer, an African American journalist, was killed in a helicopter crash in vietnam in 1967.
John Darrell Sherwood, Black Sailor, White Navy: Racial Unrest in the Fleet During the Vietnam War Era. New York: NYU Press, 2007. xxiv, 344 pp.
Patricia Mary Shields, "The Determinants of Service in the Armed Forces During the Vietnam Era." Ph.D. dissertation, Economics, Ohio State, 1977. 173 pp. DA 78-06201. Looks a lot at black-white differences.
Clyde Taylor, Vietnam and Black America: An Anthology of Protest and Resistance. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press, 1973. xxii, 335 pp.
Leroy TeCube, Year in Nam: A Native American Soldier's Story. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999. xix, 261 pp. TeCube, a Jicarilla Apache, was in Vietnam from January 1968 to January 1969, with B Company, 4/3 Infantry, 11th Brigade, Americal Division. As part of Task Force Barker, this company was a blocking force the day of the My Lai massacre.
Wallace Terry, Bloods: An Oral History of the Vietnam War by Black Veterans. New York: Random House, 1984. xviii, 311 pp. pb New York: Ballantine, 1985. xvi, 301 pp. Reissued with an epilogue added: New York: Ballantine, 1992. xix, 401 pp.
Wallace Terry, "If You're a Blood, You're a Blood: Black Officers in the Vietnam War", in The VVA Veteran, 23:1 (January/February 2003).
Wallace Terry, Missing Pages: Black Journalists of Modern America: An Oral History. New York: Carroll & Graf, 2007. 375 pp. Includes a number of journalists' accounts of the Indochina War: Terry himself (of Time magazine), Ed Bradley of CBS, Carl Rowan, Ethel Payne of the Chicago Defender, Tom Johnson of the New York Times.
Marvin Truhe, Against All Tides: The Untold Story of the USS Kitty Hawk Race Riot. Chicago Review Press, 2022 (forthcoming). Truhe was a JAG lawyer involved in the defense of black sailors court martialed after the 1972 race riot on the aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk (see also above under Freeman).
Charley Trujillo, ed., Soldados: Chicanos in Viet Nam. San Jose, CA: Chusma House Publications, 1990. xi, 187 pp. Oral history.
Samuel Vance, The Courageous and the Proud. New York: Norton, 1970. 166 pp. Subtitle on the dust jacket but not the title page: "a black man in the white man's army". Vance arrived in Vietnam in October 1965 as a sergeant in the 2/2 Infantry (1st Infantry Division). He soon became a platoon leader, and was in the Battle of Bau Bang.
Brig. Gen. Ezell Ware and Joel Engel, By Duty Bound: Survival and Redemption in a Time of War. New York: Penguin, 2005. 336 pp. Ware, who grew up poor and black in Mississippi, became a helicopter pilot. He served a 1967-68 tour flying Huey gunships in the 61st Assault Helicopter Company (101st Airborne Division), initially near Qui Nhon. He says that later, in 1971, he was involved in super-secret missions in which Cobra pilots would be flown from Thailand to an airfield in the highlands of Vietnam, from which they would fly unmarked Cobras, escorting Hueys on a hush-hush mission in the Highlands, and then be flown back out of Vietnam. He would not know what the missions of the Hueys were, and he did not know whether they were run by the military or the CIA (p. 305). I am deeply suspicious of this story, and of some details associated with it, such as his comment on what might have shot his Cobra down on one of these mission late in 1971 in Kontum province: "We know the NVA has been using radar-guided .50-caliber rounds six inches long and an inch in diameter." (p. 10) Much of the book is his story of how, after having been shot down on this mission, he survived three weeks in the jungle along with a very racist fellow officer.
James E. Westheider, Fighting on Two Fronts: African Americans and the Vietnam War. New York: New York University Press, 1997. x, 238 pp. The full text is available online if you browse the Internet through an institution that is affiliated with netLibrary.
James E. Westheider, "African Americans and the Vietnam War," in Marilyn B. Young and Robert Buzzanco, eds., A Companion to the Vietnam War (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002), pp. 333-347.
James E. Westheider, The African American Experience in Vietnam: Brothers in Arms. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008. xxi, 177 pp.
Toshio Whelchel, From Pearl Harbor to Saigon : Japanese American Soldiers and the Vietnam War. New York: Verso, 1999. xx, 203 pp.
Terry Whitmore and Richard P. Weber, Memphis, Nam, Sweden: The Autobiography of a Black American Exile. Garden city, NY: Doubleday, 1971. 189 pp. Memphis-Nam-Sweden: The Story of a Black Deserter. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1997. 202 pp. Terry Whitmore, a Marine, having been heavily wounded and evacuated to Japan for hospitalization, deserted when ordered back to Vietnam. Whitmore charged that his unit had been involved in a massacre of a Vietnamese village. I have not checked the evidence myself, but statements I have seen, that the story has been checked and proven false, look convincing to me.
Marion L. Williams, My Tour in Vietnam: A Burlesque Shocker. New York: Vantage, 1970. 176 pp. By a black female journalist.
Elisse Yvette Wright, "Birds of a Different Feather: African American Support for the Vietnam War in the Johnson Years, 1965-1969." Ph.D. dissertation, History, Ohio State University, 2002. 314 pp. AAT 3059352. The full text is available online if you are browsing the Internet from an institution, such as Clemson University, that has a subscription to ProQuest "Dissertations and Theses: Full Text."
Lea Ybarra, Vietnam Veteranos: Chicanos Recall the War. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2004. xii, 246 pp.
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Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2019, 2021, 2022, 2023, Edwin E. Moise. This document may be reproduced only by permission. Revised March 5, 2023.