Vietnam War Bibliography:

The Antiwar Movement

Margot Adler, Heretic's Heart: A Journey through Spirit and Revolution. Boston: Beacon Press, 1997. xiii, 309 pp. pb New York: Ballantine, 1998. Adler was an activist in the anti-war movement and other leftist causes during the 1960s.

Dean Albertson, ed., Rebels or Revolutionaries? Student Movements of the 1960's. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1975. 190 pp.

Tariq Ali, Street Fighting Years: An Autobiography of the Sixties. London: Collins, 1987. viii, 280 pp. Rev. ed. New York: Verso, 2005. x, 403 pp. Ali, a Pakistani living in Britain, became an important figure in the anti-war movement.

Tariq Ali and Susan Watkins, 1968: Marching in the Streets. London: Bloomsbury, 1998/New York: The Free Press, 1998. 224 pp. Heavily illustrated. Covers protest demonstrations in many countries.

K. Douglas Anderson, "Don't Rub Your Eyes: A Memoir of the Vietnam War and the Nineteen Sixties." Ph.D. dissertation, English, University of Connecticut, 2006. AAT 3221527. 236 pp. Anderson served as a combat medic in I Corps, March 1967 to February 1968. Later he joined the anti-war movement.

Terry H. Anderson, The Movement and the Sixties. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 500 pp. The full text is available online to paid subscribers of Questia.

Terry H. Anderson, The Sixties. New York: Longman, 1999. ix, 243 pp. 2d ed. New York: Longman (Pearson), 2004. xiii, 241 pp. 3d ed. New York: Longman (Pearson), 2007. 229 pp.

Herbert Aptheker, with prefaces by Staughton Lynd and Tom Hayden, Mission to Hanoi. New York: International Publishers, 1966. 128 pp.  Aptheker (who was a member of the American Communist Party) accompanied Lynd and Hayden (who were not) on a December 1965 trip to Hanoi.

LeRoy Ashby and Rod Gramer, Fighting the Odds: The Life of Senator Frank Church. Pullman: Washington State University Press, 1994. xvi, 749 pp. Church, a Democrat, was one of the most important anti-war figures in the U.S. Senate.

John F. Bannan & Rosemary S. Bannan, Law, Morality and Vietnam: The Peace Militants and the Courts. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1974. 241 pp.

Lucy G. Barber, Marching on Washington: The Forging of an American Political Tradition. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002. xiv, 323 pp. Only the last of the six major protests analysed was Vietnam-related; that was the series of demonstrations in the spring of 1971.

Steven E. Barkan, Protesters on Trial: Criminal Justice in the Southern Civil Rights and Vietnam Antiwar Movements. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1985. 198 pp.

Tom Bates, Rads. New York: HarperCollins, 1992. xviii, 465 pp. About Karl Armstrong, who bombed the Army Math Research Center at U. of Wisconsin in 1970.

Paul Berman, A Tale of Two Utopias: The Political Journey of the Generation of 1968. New York: Norton, 1997. 351 pp.

Clara Bingham, Witness to the Revolution: Radicals, Resisters, Vets, Hippies, and the Year America Lost Its Mind and Found Its Soul. New York: Random House, 2017. 656 pp. The focus is on the period August 1969 to August 1970.

Howard L. Bingham and Max Wallace, Muhammad Ali's Greatest Fight: Cassius Clay vs. The United States of America. Foreword by Muhammmad Ali. M. Evans, 2000. 288 pp.

Alexander Bloom & Winifred Breines, eds., Takin' It to the Streets: A Sixties Reader. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. xviii, 636 pp. The full text is available online to paid subscribers of Questia. 2d. ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. xvi, 533 pp.

Douglas Brinkley, Tour of Duty: John Kerry and the Vietnam War. New York: Morrow, 2004. 546 pp. Pages 129-328 cover Kerry's November 1968 to March 1969 tour in Vietnam. After his return to the United States, he became a leader of Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW). The book is primarily devoted to Kerry's actions during the years of the war; only a brief section at the end (pp. 427-457) deals with events after the Paris Agreements of 1972, including the initial stages of his 2004 presidential campaign. For Kerry's postwar career, see the biography by Michael Kranish, Brian C. Mooney, and Nina J. Easton (below).

Leslie Brody, Red Star Sister: Between Madness and Utopia. St. Paul, Minnesota: Hungry Mind Press, 1998. viii, 209 pp. A memoir.

John Broucke, "Une rencontre transatlantique: les Viêt-Nam nés du mouvement anti-guerre en France et aux États-Unis" Master's thesis in History, Université du Québec à Montréal, 2015. viii, 143 pp. Looks at the divide between "orthodox" and "revisionist" interpretations of the wars in Vietnam, and at Paul Mus, Philippe Devillers, Jean Lacouture, and Frances Fitzgerald as influences on the "orthodox" school.

Robert McAfee Brown, War Crimes. New York: Clergy and Laymen Concerned About the War in Vietnam, (1971?). The text has been placed online in the Virtual Vietnam Archive of the Vietnam Project, at Texas Tech University.

Robert M. Brown, Abraham J. Heschel, & Michael Novak, Vietnam: Crisis of Conscience. New York: published jointly by Association [YMCA] Press, Behrman House, and Herder & Herder, 1967. The authors--a Protestant, a Jew, and a Catholic--were all leaders of Clergy and Laymen Concerned About Vietnam.

Sam Brown and Len Ackland, eds., Why are We Still in Vietnam? New York: Random House, 1970. 144 pp.

Peter Brush, "Another Faraway War Got a Different Response at VU", Vanderbilt Register, May 3-9, 1999, p. 3. The anti-war movement at Vanderbilt University.

Louise Bruyn, She Walked for All of Us: One Woman's 1971 Protest Against an Illegal War. Waitsfield, Vermont: Distinction Press, 2013. xvi, 251 pp.

Michael G. Burton, "Elite Disunity and Political Instability: A Study of American Opposition to the Vietnam War." Ph.D. dissertation, Sociology, University of Texas at Austin, 1974. 303 pp. 74-14675.

Charles Chatfield, The American Peace Movement: Ideals and Activism. New York: Twayne, 1992.

Ron Chepesiuk, Sixties Radicals, Then and Now: Candid Conversations with Those Who Shaped the Era. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1995. 334 pp.

Noam Chomsky, a professor of linguistics at M.I.T., emerged as one of the more important anti-war writers on Indochina during the war. He was very intelligent, very knowledgeable, and very far to the left. He did not pretend to be moderate in an effort to appear more respectable. (Chomsky's radicalism inspired great hostility, which has led some other authors to misrepresent him, accusing him of having made outrageous and/or foolish statements he had not actually made.) Many of his essays were originally published in The New York Review of Books, including:

Noam Chomsky, American Power and the New Mandarins. New York: Pantheon, 1969. 404 pp.

Noam Chomsky, At War With Asia: Essays on Indochina. New York: Random House, 1970. pb New York: Vintage, 1970. 313 pp.

Noam Chomsky, For Reasons of State. New York: Vintage, 1973. xxxiv, 440 pp. A collection of essays, but with a subject index at the end.

Noam Chomsky and Edward S. Herman, "Distortions at Fourth Hand." The Nation, June 6, 1977. Deals with American media coverage of Cambodia and the Khmer Rouge.

Noam Chomsky, Towards a New Cold War: Essays on the Current Crisis and How We Got There. New York: Pantheon, 1982. 498 pp. A collection of essays written between 1973 and 1982, some of which deal partly or wholly with the Indochina Wars, including "Indochina and the Fourth Estate" (1973), "The Remaking of History" (1975), and "On the Aggression of South Vietnamese Peasants Against the United States" (1979, a review of Guenter Lewy's America in Vietnam).

Noam Chomsky and Edward S. Herman, The Political Economy of Human Rights, vol. 1, The Washington Connection and Third World Fascism. Boston: South End Press, 1979. xvii, 441 pp. A very left-wing study of the issues of political violence, and propaganda about political violence, in the Third World. Discussion of Indochina on pp. 299-359, especially the analysis of the 1968 Hue massacre on pp. 345-54, contains useful information. The full text is available online to paid subscribers of Questia.

Noam Chomsky and Edward S. Herman, The Political Economy of Human Rights, vol. 2, After the Cataclysm: Postwar Indochina and the Reconstruction of Imperial Ideology. Boston: South End Press, 1979. xx, 392 pp. The full text is available online to paid subscribers of Questia.

Noam Chomsky, Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic Societies. Boston, MA: South End Press, 1989. viii, 422 pp. Appendix I contains some interesting comments on the writings of Chomsky himself, Mark Lane, Neil Sheehan, and Francois Ponchaud about the Khmer Rouge.

Noam Chomsky, Rethinking Camelot: JFK, the Vietnam War, and U.S. Political Culture. Boston: South End Press, 1993. 172 pp. The full text is available online to paid subscribers of Questia.

Noam Chomsky et. al., Trials of the Resistance. New York: The New York Review, distributed by Vintage Books, 1970. 246 pp. Introduction by Murray Kempton.

Brian Keith Clardy, "The Management of Dissent: Responses to the Post-Kent State Protests at Seven Public Universities in Illinois." Ph.D. dissertation, History, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1999. 255 pp. AAT 9925857.

Brian K. Clardy, The Management of Dissent: Responses to the Post Kent State Protests at Seven Public Universities in Illinois. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2002. 176 pp.

Bronson P. Clark, Not By Might: A Viet Nam Memoir. Glastonbury, Connecticut: Chapel Rock Publishers, 1997. xiii, 241 pp. A Quaker peace activist since World War II, Clark went to work full time in 1967 for the American Friends Service Committee, working on Vietnam War issues.

Clergy and Laymen Concerned about Vietnam (CALCAV, or occasionally CLCV) later Clergy and Laymen Concerned (CALC), still later later Clergy and Laity Concerned, was a significant anti-war organization, bringing together people such as Daniel and Philip Berrigan, Robert M. Brown, William Sloane Coffin, Jr., Abraham J. Heschel, Martin Luther King, Jr., Hans J. Morgenthau, and Michael Novak. It published in pamphlet form the writings of many anti-war figures, some of which are listed under the authors' names on this page. It also published several newsletters, some issues of which have been placed online in the Virtual Vietnam Archive of the Vietnam Project, at Texas Tech University. The listing below is surely incomplete.

James W. Clinton, The Loyal Opposition: Americans in North Vietnam, 1965-1972. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1995. xxxii, 310 pp. An oral history of twenty-four individuals. The full text is available online if you browse the Internet through an institution that is affiliated with netLibrary.

William Sloane Coffin, Jr., who had served in the CIA in the 1950s, became an important anti-war voice as the Presbyterian chaplain of Yale University in the 1960s. Coffin was one of the "Boston Five" and was a member of the National Committee of Clergy and Laymen Concerned About Vietnam.

Robert Cohen and Reginald E. Zelnik, eds., The Free Speech Movement: Reflections on Berkeley in the 1960s. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002. 672 pp.

Marjorie Cohn and Kathleen Gilberd, Rules of Disengagement: The Politics and Honor of Military Dissent. Sausalito, CA: PoliPoint Press, 2009 / New York: NYU Press, 2009. The authors, both belonging to the National Lawyers Guild, strongly approve of military resistance against what they regard as illegal wars, primarily Vietnam and Iraq.

Committee of Concerned Asian Scholars (CCAS). This organization of leftist scholars was established in 1968.

David Scott Cooney, "A consistent Witness of Conscience: Methodist Nonviolent Activists, 1940-1970." Ph.D. dissertation, Iliff School of Theology and University of Denver, 2000, 338 pages; AAT 9970560. My impression is that not much of this deals with Vietnam.

David Cortright, Soldiers in Revolt: The American Military Today. New York: Anchor Press (Doubleday?), 1975. xvi, 317 pp. Soldiers in Revolt: GO Resistance during the Vietnam War, with a new introduction by Howard Zinn. Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2005. xv, 355 pp.

James Robert Cox, Jr., "The Rhetorical Structure of Mass Protest: A Criticism of Selected Speeches of the Vietnam Antiwar Movement." Ph.D. dissertation, Speech, University of Pittsburgh, 1973. 500 pp. 74-6785.

Paul Cronin, ed., A Time to Stir: Columbia '68. New York: Columbia University Press, 2018. 512 pp. A whole range of issues, not just the Vietnam War, lay behind the student protests at Columbia University in April 1968.

Joan Crowell, Fort Dix Stockade: Our Prison Camp Next Door. New York: Links, 1974. xix, 169 pp.

David Cunningham, There's Something Happening Here: The New Left, the Klan, and FBI Counterintelligence. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. 382 pp.

G. David Curry, Sunshine Patriots: Punishment and the Vietnam Offender. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1985. xiv, 146 pp.

Bruce Dancis, Resister: A Story of Protest and Prison during the Vietnam War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2014. vi, 371 pp. Dancis, a leader of the Cornell University chapter of SDS, was imprisoned for draft resistance.

Leilah Danielson, "Christianity, Dissent,and the Cold War: A.J. Muste's Challenge to Realism and U.S. Empire." Diplomatic History, 30:4 (September 2006), pp. 645-669.

James K. Davis, Assault on the Left: The FBI and the Sixties Antiwar Movement. Westport:: Praeger, 1997.  x, 226 pp.

Charles DeBenedetti, with Charles Chatfield, An American Ordeal: The Antiwar Movement of the Vietnam Era.Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1990. xvi, 495 pp. Chatfield completed the book after the death of the original author, DeBenedetti.

David Dellinger, who had been active as a leftist and pacifist since the 1930s, played a significant role in the opposition to the Vietnam War. He was one of the defendants in the trial of the "Chicago Seven" in connection with protests at the Democratic Party Convention of 1968, in Chicago (see below). See also biography by Hunt, below.

John D'Emilio, Lost Prophet: The Life and Times of Bayard Rustin. New York: The Free Press, 2003. vi, 568 pp. Rustin, primarily known as a leader of the civil rights movement, also was a pacifist (he had been imprisoned for refusing to serve during World War II) who had a marginal role in the anti-war movement.

James Dickerson, Dixie's Dirty Secret: The True Story of How the Government, the Media, and the Mob Conspired to Combat Integration and the Vietnam Antiwar Movement. M.E. Sharpe, 1998. 249 pp.

James Dickerson, North to Canada: Men and Women against the Vietnam War. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1999. xviii, 199 pp.

John Duffett, ed., intro by Bertrand Russell, forword by Ralph Schoenman, Against the Crime of Silence: Proceedings of the Russell International War Crimes Tribunal: Stockholm, Copenhagen. New York: O'Hare Books and Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation, 1968. ix, 662 pp.

John Dumbrell, ed., Vietnam and the Antiwar Movement--An International Perspective. Brookfield, VT: Gower, 1989. Aldershot, England: Avebury, 1989. x, 182 pp.

The Editors of Ramparts with Banning Garrett and Katherine Barkley, eds., Two, Three . . . Many Vietnams: A Radical Reader on the Wars in Southeast Asia and the Conflicts at Home. San Francisco: Canfield Press, 1971. xiv, 272 pp.

Lawrence Eichel, Kenneth W. Jost, Robert D. Luskin, and Richard M. Neustadt, The Harvard Strike. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1970.

Jerry Elmer, Felon for Peace: The Memoir of a Vietnam-Ear Draft Resister. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2005. 267 pp.

Robert S. Erickson and Laura Stoker, "Caught in the Draft: The Effects of Vietnam Draft Lottery Status on Political Attitudes," American Political Science Review, 105:2 (May 2011), pp. 221-237. Finds that young men who got low draft number in the 1969 lottery drawing were significantly more likely to have anti-war attitudes in later years. I have not examined this carefully, but the methodology looked valid when I skimmed it briefly.

John Ernst and Yvonne Baldwin, "The Not So Silent Minority: Louisville's Antiwar Movement, 1966-1975," Journal of Southern History, February 2007, pp. 105-42.

Marcia A. Eymann and Charles Wollenberg, eds., What's Going On?: California and the Vietnam Era. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. 209 pp. Deals with pro-war forces (note Jules Tygiel's essay on Ronald Reagan), not just anti-war.

Richard Falk, Public Intellectual: The Life of a Citizen Pilgrim. Clarity Press, 2021. 474 pp. I don't know how much of this deals with Falk's opposition to the Vietnam War.

Abraham Feinberg, Rabbi Feinberg's Hanoi Diary. Don Mills, Ontario: Longmans, 1968. 258 pp. Abraham Feinberg, an American Jew, moved to Canada in the 1940s, but kept his American citizenship. In the 1960s he became an anti-war activist; this book deals with a ten-day visit he made to North Vietnam in 1967.

Michael Ferber and Staughton Lynd, The Resistance. Boston: Beacon Press, 1971. xviii, 300 pp. Ferber was charged with conspiracy to promote resistance to the draft, as one of the "Boston Five."

Randall M. Fisher, Rhetoric and American Democracy: Black Protest through Vietnam Dissent. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1985. ix, 303 pp.

Michael S. Foley, Confronting the War Machine: Draft Resistance During the Vietnam War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003. xv, 449 pp. Draft resistance in Boston; the main focus is on the years 1966 to 1968. The full text of the Ph.D. dissertation from which this is derived (University of New Hampshire, 1999, 608 pp., AAT 9926017) is available online if you are browsing the Internet from an institution, such as Clemson University, that has a subscription to ProQuest "Dissertations and Theses: Full Text."

Jane Fonda, actress and daughter of actor Henry Fonda, became involved in the anti-war movement during the 1960s. Some of her actions and statements during a visit to North vietnam in 1972 inspired widespread outrage. In addition to the works listed here, see also the book by Holly Near below, and the House Internal Security Committee investigation of Fonda's trip to Hanoi in 1972.

H. Bruce Franklin, Crash Course: From the Good War to the Forever War. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2018. 384 pp. According to a review on H-New, the book is oddly incomplete in its discussion of Frnaklin's political activities during the Vietnam War.

Lucinda Franks, Waiting Out a War: The Exile of Private John Picciano. New York: Coward, McCann, & Geoghegan, 1974. 222 pp. Picciano was a draftee who deserted from the Army in 1967 and eventually fled to Sweden.

Jessica M. Frazier, "Collaborative Efforts to End the War in Viet Nam: The Interactions of Women Strike for Peace, the Vietnamese Women's Union, and the Women's Union of Liberation, 1965-1968," Peace & Change 37:3 (July 2012), pp. 339-65.

Jessica M. Frazier, Women's Antiwar Diplomacy during the Vietnam War Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017. 236 pp.

Harrop A. Freeman, Bayard Rustin, Richard Lichtman, Richard Wasserstrom, Raghavan N. Iyer, Harry Kelven, Jr., and Scott Buchanan, Civil Disobedience. An Occasional Paper on the Free Society. Santa Barbara, CA: Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, April 1966. 32 pp. The text has been placed online in the Virtual Vietnam Archive of the Vietnam Project, at Texas Tech University.

Michael B. Friedland, Lift Up Your Voice Like a Trumpet: White Clergy and the Civil Rights and Antiwar Movements, 1954-1973. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998. x, 326 pp. The full text is available online to paid subscribers of Questia.

Leon Friedman and Burt Neuborne, Unquestioning Obedience to the President: The ACLU Case against the Legality of the War in Vietnam. New York: Norton, 1972. 284 pp. Introduction by George McGovern.

John K. Galbraith, How to Get Out of Vietnam. New York: Signet, 1967. 47 pp.

Adam Garfinkle, Telltale Hearts: The Origins and Impact of the Vietnam Antiwar Movement. New York: St. Martin's, 1995. 352 pp. Preface by Stephen E. Ambrose.

William F. Gausman, Red Stains on Vietnam Doves. Aurora, CO: Veracity Publications, 1989.

Willard Gaylin, In the Service of their Country: War Resisters in Prison. New York: Viking, 1970. vi, 344 pp. pb New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1970.

Joel Geier, "Vietnam: The Soldier's Rebellion". International Socialist Review, no. 9, Fall 1999.

Marc Jason Gilbert, ed., The Vietnam War on Campus: Other Voices, More Distant Drums.  Westport: Praeger, 2001.  xiv, 268 pp. 288 pp. Three of the papers in the volume deal with high schools.

Jill Kristine Gill, "Peace is Not the Absence of War but the Presence of Justice: The National Council of Churches' Reaction and Response to the Vietnam War, 1965-1972". Ph.D. dissertation, American Civilization, University of Pennsylvania, 1996. DA 9712930.

Jill K. Gill, Embattled Ecumenism: The National Council of Churches, the Vietnam War, and the Trials of the Protestant Left. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2011. xii, 551 pp.

Gerald R. Gioglio, Days of Decision: An Oral History of Conscientious Objectors in the Military During the Vietnam War. Trenton: Broken Rifle Press,1989.

Todd Gitlin, The Whole World is Watching: Mass Media in the Making and Unmaking of the New Left. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980. xiii, 327 pp. Reprinted, with a new preface, 2003. xxv, 327 pp.

Todd Gitlin, The Intellectuals and the Flag. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006. 167 pp.

Paul Benedikt Glatz, Vietnam's Prodigal Heroes: American Deserters, International Protest, European Exile, and Amnesty. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books (Rowman & Littlefield), 2021. 412 pp.

Adolph W. Goodman, A Victim of the Vietnam War: The Story of Virginia Hanly. Raleigh, NC: Pentland Press, 2000. 129 pp. Hanly, a fervent opponent of the war, committed suicide in 1975.

Christoper Goscha and Maurice Vaïsse, eds., La guerre du Vietnam et l'Europe, 1963-1973. Bruxelles: Bruylant/Paris: L.G.D.J., 2003. xxvii, 491 pp. A collection of papers, some in French and some in English. Among the ones dealing with the anti-war movement are:

Van Gosse, The Movements of the New Left, 1950-1975: A Brief History with Documents. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. 208 pp.

Sherry Gershon Gottlieb, Hell No, We Won't Go: Resisting the Draft During the Vietnam War. New York: Viking, 1991. xxvi, 274 pp.

Ivan Greenberg, The Dangers of Dissent: The FBI and Civil Liberties since 1965. Lexington Books, 2011. 344 pp. Includes discussion of the way the FBI dealt with opponents of the Vietnam War.

Felix Greene, Vietnam! Vietnam! Palo Alto, CA: Fulton, 1966. 175 pp. A strongly critical view of the war.

Philip Jones Griffiths, Vietnam Inc. New York: Collier, 1971. Reprinted, with a new introduction by Noam Chomsky, London: Phaidon Press, 2001. 224 pp. A collection of photos. Griffiths, who covered Vietnam with the Magnum photo agency 1966-71, was strongly hostile to the war.

Sandra Gurvis, Where Have All the Flower Children Gone? University Press of Mississippi, 2006. 240 pp. Oral histories of people who had been in the antiwar movement.

Alan Haig-Brown, Hell No, We Won't Go: Vietnam Draft Resisters in Canada. Vancouver, Canada: Raincoast Books, 1996. xi, 222 pp.

Mitchell K. Hall, Because of their Faith: CALCAV and Religious Opposition to the Vietnam War. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990. CALCAV was a moderate interfaith group of religious leaders that emerged in the New York area in 1965.

Mitchell K. Hall, "The Vietnam Era Antiwar Movement", OAH Magazine of History, 18:5 (October 2004), pp. 13-17.

Simon Hall, Peace and Freedom: The Civil Rights and Antiwar Movements in the 1960s. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004. 267 pp. Looks at the conflicts that sometimes divided the civil rights and anti-war movements.

Simon Hall, Rethinking the American Anti-War Movement. Routledge, 2010. 196 pp. A brief skim did not impress me.

Fred Halstead, GIs Speak Out against the War: The Case of the Fort Jackson 8.  New York: Pathfinder, 1970.  128 pp.

Fred Halstead, Out Now! A Participant's Account of the American Movement Against the Vietnam War. New York: Monad Press (distributed by Pathfinder Press), 1978. 759 pp. 2d ed. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1991. ii, 759 pp. By a member of the Socialist Workers Party.

Michael P. Hamilton, ed., The Vietnam War: Christian Perspectives. Grand Rapids: Eerdman, 1967. 140 pp.

Beth Ann Handler, "The Art of Activism: Artists and Writers Protest, the Art Workers' Coalition, and the New York Art Strike Protest the Vietnam War." Ph.D. dissertation, Art History, Yale, 2001. 521 pp. Three New York-based protest organizations, roughly 1965-1971. AAT 3007353. The full text is available online if you are browsing the Internet from an institution, such as Clemson University, that has a subscription to ProQuest "Dissertations and Theses: Full Text."

David Harris, Our War: What We did in Vietnam and What it did to Us. New York: Times Books, 1996. 191 pp. Reflections, rather than a coherent autobiography, by the man who was elected Stanford University student body president in 1966, became a leader of the anti-war movement, married Joan Baez, and served 20 months in prison for resistance to the draft.

David Harris, Goliath. New York: Sidereal Press, 1970. vi, 135 pp. Introduction by Joan Baez Harris. Written in prison.

David Harris, Dreams Die Hard: Three Men's Journey Through the Sixties. San Francisco: Mercury House, 1993. viii, 341 pp. David Harris, Allard Lowenstein, and Dennis Sweeney became friends at Stanford University in the 1960s. Harris and Lowenstein later became important anti-war organizers. Sweeney murdered Lowenstein in 1980, and was found not guilty by reason of insanity.

Vance Hartke, The American Crisis in Vietnam. Indianapolis: Bobbs Merrill, 1968. 163 pp. Anti-war statement, said to be well reasoned, by a US Senator.

Will Hathaway, "Conflict Management and Leadership in Higher Education: A Case Study of University of Michigan President Robben W. Fleming." Ed.D. dissertation, Leadership and Counseling, Eastern Michigan University, 2003. xiv, 270 pp. AAT 3090772. Looks primarily at the way Fleming dealt with student protest at the University of Michigan between 1968 and 1970.

James R. Hayes, "The War Within a War: Dissent in the Military with an Emphasis upon the Vietnam-era." Ph.D. dissertation, Sociology, University of Connecticut, 1975. 455 pp. 76-16515. Argues that the GI antiwar movement, from 1965 to January 1973, was not very successful.

Thomas Lee Hayes, American Deserters in Sweden. New York: Association Press, 1971. 192 pp.

G. Louis Heath, ed., Mutiny Does Not Happen Lightly: The Literature of the American Resistance to the Vietnam War. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1976. 597 pp.

Kenneth Heineman, Campus Wars: The Peace Movement at American State Universities in the Vietnam Era. New York: New York University Press, 1993. The full text is available online if you browse the Internet through an institution that is affiliated with Michael T. Heaney and Fabio Rojas, 'Partisans, Nonpartisans, and the Antiwar Movement in the United States,' AMERICAN POLITICS RESEARCH, Vol. 35, No. 4 (July 2007): 431-464.

Kenneth J. Heineman, Put Your Bodies Upon the Wheels: Student Revolt in the 1960s. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2001. xii, 251 pp. A number of statements in this one struck me as dubious.

Nat Hentoff, ed., The Essays of A. J. Muste. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1967. xvii, 515 pp.

Mary Hershberger, "To the Shores of Vietnam: Citizen Diplomacy and the Second Indochina War." Ph.D. dissertation, History, University of Georgia, 1995. 409 pp. DA 9540435

Mary Hershberger, Traveling to Vietnam: American Peace Activists and the War. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1998.  xxiii, 256 pp.

Walter L. Hixson, ed., The Vietnam Antiwar Movement. New York: Garland, 2000.

Robert C. Hodges, "The Cooing of a Dove: Senator Albert Gore Sr.'s Opposition to the War in Vietnam," Peace & Change, 22:2 (April 1997), pp. 132-53.

Abbie Hoffman, Revolution for the Hell of It. New York: Dial Press, 1968.

Abbie Hoffman, Soon to Be a Major Motion Picture. New York: Putnam, 1980. xv, 304 pp.

Helen Lefkowitz Horowitz, "The 1960s and the Transformation of Campus Cultures." History of Education Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 1 (Spring 1986), pp. 1-38. If you browse the Internet through an institution that has subscribed to JSTOR, you can access the text directly or go through the JSTOR History of Education Quarterly browse page.

Andrew Hunt, The Turning: A History of Vietnam Veterans Against the War. New York: New York University Press, 1999. xi, 259 pp. The full text is available online if you browse the Internet through an institution that is affiliated with netLibrary. Based on Ph.D. dissertation, "The Turning: Vietnam Veterans Against the War, 1967 to the Present" (Utah, 1997, DA 9806387).

Ken Hurwitz, Marching Nowhere. New York: Norton, 1971. Hurwitz was one of the organizers of the 1969 Moratorium.

Howard Jablon, "General David M. Shoup, U.S.M.C.: Warrior and War Protester." Journal of Military History, 60:3 (July 1996), pp. 513-538. Shoup retired from being Commandant of the Marine Corps in 1963; within a few years he was a public opponent of the Vietnam War. If you browse the Internet through an institution that has subscribed to JSTOR, you can access the text directly or go through the JSTOR Journal of Military History browse page.

Bruce Jackson, Disorderly Conduct. Foreword by William M. Kunstler. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992. xvi, 261 pp.

Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones, Peace Now! American Society and the Ending of the Vietnam War. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999. ix, 308 pp.

Thomas Robert Jehn, "Academic Activism: Conceptions of Power and Dissent in the English Profession, from the Cold War to the New World Economic Order." Ph.D. dissertation, history, University of Virginia, 2003. 449 pp. AAT 3083078.

Andrew Johns, "Breaking the Eleventh Commandment: Pete McCloskey's Campaign Against the Vietnam War," California History 98:1 (Spring 2021), pp. 3-27. Representative Paul N. "Pete" McCloskey (R-CA) did in 1972 what Eugene McCarthy had done in 1968: run for president as an anti-war candidate, opposing his own party's inclumbent president for that party's nomination.

George McT. Kahin, Southeast Asia: A Testament. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003. xxiii, 350 pp. George Kahin, a professor at Cornell, was perhaps the most important of the real Southeast Asian scholars in the anti-war movement. Originally an Indonesianist, he became concerned with Vietnam in the mid-1960s. Well over a third of this memoir (chapters 9-16, pp. 182-313) is devoted to the Second Indochina War. At the time of his death in 2000, he had completed large portions of his planned manuscript, with considerable detail about his experiences visiting both South and North Vietnam, but there were other episodes he had not gotten to. His widow Audrey Kahin wrote large portions of chapter 11, filling in some of the gaps.

Stuart A. Kallen, The Home Front: Americans Protest the War. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books 2001. 112 pp.

Scott Kamen, "Making Room for Liberals in the Antiwar Movement: The Americans for Democratic Action and the Dilemma of Liberal Opposition to the Vietnam War," Peace & Change: A Journal of Peace Research 44:3 (July 2019), pp 350-85.

Tarik W. Kamil, "The Politics of Time and Eternity: Quaker Pacifists and Their Activism During the Vietnam War." Ph.D. dissertation, History, Ohio University, 2006. 330 pp. AAT 3209654.

Renée Goldsmith Kasinsky, Refugees from Militarism: Draft-age Americans in Canada. New Brunswick, NJ: Littlefield and Adams, 1976.

Robert W. Kastenmeier, Vietnam Hearings: Voices from the Grass Roots. New York: Doubleday, 1965. 159 pp. Hearings held by congressman Kastenmeier in his home district, Madison, Wisconsin, July 1965. Both pro- and anti-war viewpoints.

Steven Kelman, Push Comes to Shove: The Escalation of Student Protest. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1970. 287 pp.

George Kennan, Democracy and the Student Left. Boston: Little, Brown, 1968. A statement by Kennan, responses by various people including numerous student radicals, and a long concluding comment by Kennan.

Robert F. Kennedy was relatively hawkish on Vietnam when his brother was president, but later he became briefly (before his assassination in 1968) one of the most important American critics of the Vietnam War. Aside from the books listed here, he is also discussed in some items listed under U.S. Policy.

Stephen A. Kent, From Slogans to Mantras: Social Protest and Religious Conversion in the Late Vietnam War Era. Syracuse University Press, 2001. 224 pp.

John Kerry and Vietnam Veterans Against the War (David Thorne and George Butler, eds.), The New Soldier. New York: Collier, 1971. 174 pp. Partly about the April 1971 VVAW demonstrations in Washington, partly about the Vietnam War itself. Contains many short statements by American veterans of Vietnam (some of which are from the Winter Soldier hearings). Also many photographs. A group of Kerry's political enemies calling themselves have placed online an oddly modified version of this book. The original book had intermingled text and photographs. What has been placed online as a .pdf file has the text gathered together at the beginning, and the photos gathered together after the text. The text is complete as far as I can tell, but I have not checked closely. I am pretty sure that a bunch of the photos have been omitted, but it is hard to be sure, because the ones that are in the web version have been scrambled around; they are not in anything even close to the order in which the photos appeared in the book. Almost all the photo captions have been omitted. And there is one big photo of Kerry that seems to have been added (p. 55 of the .pdf file); I could not find this photo anywhere in the copy of the book I checked. Also some testimony by Kerry before a congressional committee, not found in the book, has been added. The overall effect is to make Kerry's role in the book seem larger than it actually was.

Michael Kranish, Brian C. Mooney, and Nina J. Easton, John F. Kerry: The Complete Biography by the Boston Globe Reporters Who Know Him Best. New York: Public Affairs, 2004. xxviii, 448 pp. There are two chapters (pp. 71-109) on Kerry's service on Swift Boats in Vietnam, and one (pp. 110-140) about the period of his active involvement in the anti-war movement, but this is an overall biography, devoted mostly to events after the end of the Vietnam War (unlike Brinkley's biography, above, devoted mostly to the war years).

Martin Luther King, Jr., was a Baptist preacher who became a major leader of the civil rights movement. In 1965 he began publicly questioning the Vietnam War, and in 1967 he began speaking very strongly against the war. He was murdered in 1968.

William H. Kuenning, Free to Go: The Story of a Family's Involvement in the 1971 Mayday Activities in Washington. Lombard, IL: Unicorn Publications, 1971. 35 pp.

William M. Kunstler was perhaps the most conspicuous of the politically radical attorneys who represented anti-war figures in trials during the Vietnam era. His clients included the "Chicago Seven" (see below) and the "Catonsville Nine" (see The Catholic Antiwar Movement).

Ian Keith Lekus, "Queer and present dangers: Homosexuality and American antiwar activism during the Vietnam era." Ph.D. dissertation, History, Duke University, 2003. xvii, 492 pp. AAT 3135134. The full text is available online if you are browsing the Internet from an institution, such as Clemson University, that has a subscription to ProQuest "Dissertations and Theses: Full Text."

Sidney Lens, Unrepentant Radical. Boston: Beacon Press, 1980.

James Glyn Lewes, "Protest and Survive: An Analysis of the Influence and Effect of GI-produced Underground Newspapers on the United States Armed Forces during the Vietnam War." Ph.D. dissertation: Mass Communications, University of Iowa, 2000. 299 pp. AAT 9975835. The full text is available online if you are browsing the Internet from an institution, such as Clemson University, that has a subscription to ProQuest "Dissertations and Theses: Full Text."

James Lewes, Protest and Survive: Underground GI Newspapers during the Vietnam War. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003. xii, 243 pp.

Penny Lewis, Hardhats, Hippies, and Hawks: The Vietnam Antiwar Movement as Myth and Memory. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2013. xi, 255 pp.

Robbie Lieberman, Prairie Power: Voices of 1960s Midwestern Student Protest. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2004. xvi, 264 pp.

Aaron J. Leonard and Conor A. Gallagher, Heavy Radicals: The FBI's Secret War on America's Maoists: The Revolutionary Union / Revolutionary Communist Party 1968-1980. Zero books, 2015. 356 pp.

Patricia Lofton Linder, "World-View and Rhetorical Choice: The Ideology and Tactics of Selected Antiwar Protest Groups in the Vietnam Era." Ph.D. dissertation, Speech, Northwestern, 1980. 225 pp. AAT 8104736. Focused mainly on Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) and The Resistance (an anti-draft organization established in 1967).

Ellis E. Long, "Communication and Social Change: The Verbal and Nonverbal Protest of Selected Clerical Activists Opposed to the Vietnam War, 1965-1970." Ph.D. dissertation, Speech, Florida State, 1971. 426 pp. 75-6289. Considers Catholics, Protestants, and Jews.

Charles F. Longino, Jr., "Draft Lottery Numbers and Student Opposition to War." Sociology of Education, Vol. 46, No. 4 (Autumn 1973), pp. 499-506. A study finding not much correlation between low draft lottery numbers and anti-war sentiment. If you browse the Internet through an institution that has subscribed to JSTOR, you can access the text directly.

Allard Lowenstein (1929-1980), a longtime liberal activist, was a significant organizer of anti-war forces during the Vietnam War. He was one who persuaded Eugene McCarthy to run for president as an antiwar candidate in the election of 1968.

Brad E. Lucas, Radicals, Rhetoric, and the War: The University of Nevada in the Wake of Kent State. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. xii, 207 pp.

J. Anthony Lukas, Don't Shoot--We Are Your Children!. New York: Random House, 1971. 461 pp. Profiles of ten members of the youth counterculture. Some but not all of these were involved in the anti-war movement.

Staughton Lynd and Alice Lynd. Staughton Lynd was a leftist historian whose political career was derailed in the late 1960s as a result of his political activism. He and his wife Alice Lynd have written relevant works both separately and together.

Dolores McCabe, "Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Inc.: Technology, Idealism, and Rebellion." Ph.D. dissertation, Sociology, City University of New York, 1997. 675 pp. DA 9732947. Written from a strongly anti-war viewpoint.

Eugene McCarthy, a Democratic U.S. Senator from Minnesota, was so disillusioned with President Johnson's Vietnam policy that he ran against Johnson for the Democratic nomination in the 1968 presidential election.

Suzanne Kelley McCormack, "'Good Politics is Doing Something': Independent Diplomats and Anti-War Activists in the Vietnam-Era Peace Movement: A Collective Biography." Ph.D. dissertation, History, Boston College, 2002. 254 pp. AAT 3048314. Profiles Carol McEldowney of SDS, who visited North Vietnam in late 1967 [see below]; Rohna Shoul of Voice of Women; and Ann Froines of the Indochina Peace Campaign, who visited North Vietnam with Eldridge Cleaver in 1971. The full text is available online if you are browsing the Internet from an institution, such as Clemson University, that has a subscription to ProQuest "Dissertations and Theses: Full Text."

Carol Cohen McEldowney, Hanoi Journal, 1967. Edited by Suzanne Kelley McCormack and Elizabeth R. Mock. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2007. xiv, 151 pp. McEldowney was a member of an SDS group led by Tom Hayden, which visited Hanoi in late 1967.

William J. McGill, The Year of the Monkey: Revolt on the Campus, 1968-1969. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982. xii, 297 pp.

George S. McGovern, one of the most vigorous opponents of the war in the U.S. Senate, won the Democratic nomination for president in the 1972 election, but was then trounced by Richard Nixon.

Norman Mailer, The Armies of the Night. New York: New American Library, 1968. Mailer, a novelist, gives his impressions of October 1967 anti-war demonstrations in Washington.

Norman Mailer, Miami and the Siege of Chicago: An Informal History of the Republican and Democratic Conventions of 1968. New York: New American Library, 1968. 288 pp.

David Maraniss, They Marched Into Sunlight: War and Peace, Vietnam and America, October 1967. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003. xiv, 560 pp. This book juxtaposes two incidents: the battle of Ong Thanh, October 17, 1967, in which the 2/28 Infantry (Black Lions) of the 1st Infantry Division had heavy losses in an ambush about 20 km north of Lai Khe, west of Route 13 in the Long Nguyen Secret Zone, and the anti-war demonstration (a protest against on-campus recruiting by the Dow Chemical Corporation) at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, that turned into a riot on October 18, 1967.

John Douglas Marshall, Reconciliation Road: A Family Odyssey of War and Honor. Syracuse University Press, 1993. xiii, 296 pp. Marshall, a lieutenant, obtained a discharge from the US Army in approximately 1970, as a conscientious objector, in order to avoid service in Vietnam. He had decided the war was wrong. His father, General S.L.A. Marshall, disowned him. (The book also discusses the accusations of dishonest writing that have been made recently against S.L.A. Marshall.)

Chad Andrew Martin, "Paradise Now: Youth Politics and the British Counterculture, 1958-1974" Ph.D. dissertation, History, Stanford University, 2003. 345 pp. AAT 3085209.

Seymour Melman et. al., In the Name of America. New York: Clergy and Laymen Concerned about Vietnam/Annandale, VA: Turnpike Press, 1968. ix, 421 pp.

Louis Menashe and Ronald Radosh, eds., Teach-ins, U.S.A.: Reports, Opinions, Documents. New York: Praeger, 1967.

Marshall W. Meyer, "Harvard Students in the Midst of Crisis: A Note on the Sources of Leftism." Sociology of Education, Vol. 46, No. 2 (Spring 1973), pp. 203-218. If you browse the Internet through an institution that has subscribed to JSTOR, you can access the text directly.

Gregg Michel, "'We'll Take Our Stand': The Southern Student Organizing Committee and the Radicalization of White Southern Students, 1964-1969." Ph.D. dissertation, History, University of Virginia, 1999. 596 pp. AAT 9935083.

Walter Millis on War and Revolution Today, with Special Reference to Vietnam, Followed by a Discussion. An Occasional Paper on the Free Society. Santa Barbara, CA: Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, December 1965. 11 pp. The text has been placed online in the Virtual Vietnam Archive of the Vietnam Project, at Texas Tech University.

James Mogan, "Interview with James Mogan." Oral history interview, conducted by Steven Maxner, June 16, 1999. 56 pp. Mogan, who was in ROTC while a student at the University of Oregon, 1968-1972, describes the political environment on campus and the anti-war movement there. The text is copyright by, and has been placed on-line by, the Vietnam Project at Texas Tech University.

Marian Beth Mollin, "Actions Louder than Words: Gender and Political Activism in the American Radical Pacifist Movement, 1942-1972." Ph.D. dissertation, History, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, 2000. 344 pp. AAT 9960775.

Rusty L. Monhollon, This is America? The Sixties in Lawrence, Kansas. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. 320 pp. Tension between student protesters at the University of Kansas, and the authorities of this rather conservative midwestern town, reached a peak when the police shot and killed two men in July 1970.

Malcolm Monroe, The Means is the End in Vietnam. White Plains, NY: Murlagan Press, 1968. 124 pp.

Hans J. Morgenthau, a professor of political science at the University of Chicago, was one of the most important of what might be called the "respectable" critics of the Vietnam War.

Richard Moser, The New Winter Soldiers: GI and Veteran Dissent during the Vietnam Era. Rutgers University Press, 1996. xi, 219 pp.

Brian S. Mueller, "Confronting America's National Security State: The Institute for Policy Studies and the Vietnam War," Diplomatic History 41:4 (September 2017), pp 694-718.

Peg Mullen, Unfriendly Fire: A Mother's Memoir. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1995. 156 pp. Ms. Mullen's son, Sergeant Michael Mullen, was killed by US artillery fire in 1970. This turned his parents, Iowa farmers, from supporters of the war to antiwar activists. (There is also a brief account of the incident in the memoirs of Sergeant Mullen's battalion commander, H. Norman Schwarzkopf, and an extended study in a book by C.D.B. Bryan.)

Holly Near, with Derk Richardson, Fire in the Rain . . . Singer in the Storm: Holly Near, an Autobiography. New York: William Morrow, 1990. 290 pp. Holly Near, a singer, was associated with Jane Fonda in the anti-war movement.

Gerald Nicosia, Home to War: A History of the Vietnam Veterans' Movement. New York: Crown, 2001. xi, 689 pp. There is a lot here on VVAW, but also significant attention to PTSD, Agent Orange, the Veterans Administration, and other topics.

David Obst, Too Good to be Forgotten: Changing America in the '60s and '70s. New York: Wiley, 1998. v, 282 pp.

Captain Brendan J. O'Donnell, U.S. Navy (ret.), "ROTC under Siege: While Student protests made NROTC a casualty of war at many universities, HOly Cross midshipmen fought for their program's survival," Naval Hisory 32:2 (April 2018), pp. 28-33.

Lorena Oropeza, "La Batalla Esta Aqui! Chicanos Oppose the War in Vietnam." Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell, 1996. DA 9608253.

Lorena Oropeza, ¡Raza Sí! ¡Guerra No! Chicano Protest and Patriotism During the Viet Nam War Era. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005. xviii, 278 pp.

Stephen Eugene Parr, "The Forgotten Radicals: The New Left in the Deep South, Florida State University, 1960 to 1972." Ph.D. dissertation, History, Florida State University, 2000. 457 pp. AAT 9971768.

David Parsons, "Dangerous Grounds: The American GI Coffeehouse Movement, 1967-72. Ph.D. dissertation, City University of New York, 2013. DA 3549069.

David L. Parsons, Dangerous Grounds: Antiwar Coffeehouses and Military Dissent in the Vietnam Era. Chapel Hill: University of Noth Carolina Press, 2017. 176 pp.

Dick Perrin, with Tim McCarthy, G.I. Resister: The Story of How One American Soldier and His Family Fought the War in Vietnam. Victoria, B.C.: Trafford, 2001. 167 pp. Perrin deserted from the US Army in 1967.

Katherine Perrotta, "FBI Surveillance of the War Resisters League during the Vietnam War, 1965-1973," Peace & Change: A Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 46, Issue 1 (January 2021), pp. 52–70.

Mark J. Peterson, "Protest Politics, the Media, and Public and Elite Opinion during the Vietnam War." Ph.D. dissertation, Political Science, Indiana University, 1994. 438 pp. DA9518552. I am dubious about the mathematical modeling described in the author's summary.

Norman Podhoretz, for many years editor of Commentary magazine, started out as a leftist. In the 1960s he thought American escalation of the Vietnam War was unwise, but he later shifted to the right, and became one of the founders of "neoconservatism."

Murray Polner, When Can I Come Home? A Debate on Amnesty for Exiles, Antiwar Prisoners, and Others. Garden City, NY: Doubleday Anchor, 1972. 267 pp.

Dotson Rader, Blood Dues. New York: Knopf, 1973. 211 pp.

Frank J. Rafalko, MH/CHAOS: The CIA's Campaign Against the Radical New Left and the Black Panthers. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2011. Rafalko, as a CIA officer, participated in the program.

Jonah Raskin, For the Hell of it. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997. Sympathetic biography of Yippie leader Abbie Hoffman.

Marcus G. Raskin, Being and Doing. New York: Random House, 1971. xxviii, 449 pp.

Joseph D. Retzer, "War and Political Ideology: The Roots of Radicalism among Vietnam Veterans." Ph.D. dissertation, Political Science, Yale, 1976. 408 pp. 76-30229. Based on prolonged interviews with fifteen white enlisted veterans of heavy Vietnam combat, about half of whom had become radicals and half not, attempting to discover the reasons for the difference in outcomes.

Joel P. Rhodes, The Voice of Violence: Performative Violence as Protest in the Vietnam Era. Westport: Praeger, 2001. 224 pp.

Matthew Rinaldi, "The Olive-Drab Rebels: Military Organizing During the Vietnam Era." Radical America, 8:3 (May-June 1974).

Mary Susannah Robbins, ed., Against the Vietnam War: Writings by Activists. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1999. xxv, 317 pp. Revised edition: Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. 328 pp.

Lawrence Roberts, Mayday 1971: A White House at War, a Revolt in the Streets, and the Untold History of America's Biggest Mass Arrest. Boston and New York: Houghton Miffling Harcourt, 2020. 448 pp. Protests against the Vietnam War in Washington, beginning in late April 1971, culminated with the arrest of more than twelve thousand people in early May.

Jo Ann Ooiman Robinson, Abraham Went Out: A Biography of A.J. Muste. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1981. xvii, 341 pp.

W.J. Rorabaugh, Berkeley at War: The 1960s. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. xii, 277 pp.

Michael P. Rosenberg, "Congress and the Vietnam War: A Study of the Critics of the War in 1967 and 1968." Ph.D. dissertation, Political Science, New School for Social Research, 1973. 216 pp. 74-159. Looks good, from the abstract.

Milton J. Rosenberg, Sidney Verba, and Philip E. Converse, foreword by George McGovern, postscript by Ralph K. White, Vietnam and the Silent Majority: The Dove's Guide. New York: Harper & Row, 1970. xii, 162 pp. A manual for anti-war propaganda.

Roger Rosenblatt, Coming Apart: A Memoir of the Harvard Wars of 1969. Boston: Little, Brown, 1997. 234 pp. Rosenblatt, who was teaching in the English Department at Harvard, became a member of the committee that the university assigned to investigate the takeover of the administration building by student radicals in 1969.

Seth Rosenfeld, Subversives: The FBI's War on Student Radicals, and Reagan's Rise to Power. Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2012. 734 pp. The focus is on the University of California at Berkeley.

Caleb S. Rossiter, The Chimes of Freedom Flashing: A Personal History of the Vietnam Anti-war Movement and the 1960s. Washington, D.C.: TCA Press, 1996. 331 pp.

James Rothrock, Lt. Col. USAF (Ret.), Divided We Fall: How Disunity Leads to Defeat. Bloomington, Indiana: AuthorHouse, 2006. x, 519 pp. Blames anti-war Americans for the outcome of the war. Judging from the brief look I have taken at it, it seems exaggerated.

Sabine Rousseau, La colombe et le napalm: des chrétiens français contre les guerres d'Indochine et du Vietnam, 1945-1975. Paris: CNRS, 2002. xxii, 370 pp. Documentary appendices are pp. 337-359.

Jerry Rubin, Do It. New York: Ballantine, 1970.

Jerry Rubin, We Are Everywhere. New York: Harper & Row, 1971. 255 pp.

Amy J. Rutenberg,

Rough Draft: Cold War Military Manpower Policy and the Origins of Vietnam-Era Draft Resistance. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2019. xiv, 259 pp.

David L. Schalk, War and the Ivory Tower: Algeria and Vietnam. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. x, 258 pp. 2d ed., with foreword by Benjamin Stora and George C. Herring: Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2005. xxxvi, 258 pp.

Robert Scheer, How the United States Got Involved in Vietnam. Santa Barbara, CA: Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, December 1965. 80 pp. The text has been placed online in the Virtual Vietnam Archive of the Vietnam Project, at Texas Tech University.

David Schoenbrun, Vietnam: How We Got In, How to Get Out. New York: Atheneum, 1968. 214 pp.

Peter Schrag, Test of Loyalty: Daniel Ellsberg and the Rituals of Secret Government. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1974. 414 pp.

Kathryn Schumaker, Troublemakers: Students' Rights and Racial Justice in the Long 1960s. New York: NYU Press, 2019. The main focus is on protests over racial and ethnic issues in American high schools, but there is inevitably some discussion of antiwar protest.

Laurent Schwartz, A Mathematician Grappling with His Century. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser, 2001. viii, 490 pp. French original Un mathématicien aux prises avec le siècle (Odile Jacob, 1997). Schwartz, who had previously been a conspicuous opponent of France's war in Algeria, also became an opponent of the American war in Vietnam.

Todd W. Scofield, "History and a slice of social justice: the anti-Vietnam war movement in Tampa and at USF, 1965-1970". M.A. Thesis, University of South Florida, 1988. Approximately v, 181 pp. The full text is available online.

Katherine A. Scott, Reining in the State: Civil Society and Congress in the Vietnam and Watergate Eras. Lawrence University Press of Kansas, 2013. 248 pp.

David R. Seager, "Repression in Academia: New Left and Antiwar College Teachers and Political Dissent in the Vietnam War Era, 1964-1975." Ph.D dissertation, History, University of Maine, 1995. 252 pp. DA9533881.

John Bennett Sears, "Peace Work: The Antiwar Tradition in American Labor from the Cold War to the Iraq War." Diplomatic History 34:4 (September 2010), pp. 699-720.

Willa Seidenberg and William Short, A matter of Conscience: GI Resistance during the Vietnam War. Andover, MA: Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, 1992. 83 pp. Photographs by William Short; oral histories by Willa Seidenberg and William Short. 58 portraits and oral histories of GIs.

General David M. Shoup, "The New American Militarism." The Atlantic, April 1969. A reprint of this article, distributed by Clergy and Laymen Concerned about Vietnam, has been placed online in the Virtual Vietnam Archive of the Vietnam Project, at Texas Tech University.

Donald L. Simons, I Refuse: Memories of a Vietnam War Objector. Trenton: Broken Rifle Press, 1992. 184 pp. Simons, a graduate student at West Virginia University, resisted being drafted and eventually fled to Canada.

Alpha Smaby, Political Upheaval: Minnesota and the Vietnam War Protest. Minneapolis, MN: Dillon Press, 1987. xxii, 480 pp.

Melvin Small, Antiwarriors: The Vietnam War and the Battle for America's Hearts and Minds. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, 2002. xiv, 183 pp.

Melvin Small, Covering Dissent: The Media and the Anti-Vietnam War Movement. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, September 1994. x, 228 pp. The full text is available online to paid subscribers of Questia.

Melvin Small, Johnson, Nixon, and the Doves. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1988. xiii, 319 pp. Looks at the influence of the antiwar movement on presidential policies.

Melvin Small and William D. Hoover, eds., Give Peace a Chance: Exploring the Vietnam Antiwar Movement. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1992. xxi, 300 pp. Foreword by George McGovern. The full text is available online to paid subscribers of Questia.

Douglas J. Snyder, "Dissent in Detroit: Anti-Vietnam war protest at Wayne State University, 1965--1971. M.A. thesis, Wayne State University, 2006. 120 pp. AAT 1436694.

Susan Sontag, Trip to Hanoi. New York: Noonday (Farrar, Straus and Giroux), 1968. 91 pp. A May 1968 trip. An interesting mixed view; see in particular pp. 71-76 for a mixture of naive praise for the DRV, particularly in regard to the treatement of American POWs, with an awareness that it has committed "notorious crimes . . . brutalities and injustices."

Edward K. Spann, Democracy's Children: The Young Rebels of the 1960s and the Power of Ideals. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003. 185 pp.

Dr. Benjamin Spock, a pediatrician famous as author of a best-selling book on baby and child care, became an important anti-war figure, and eventually was charged with conspiracy to promote resistance to the draft, as one of the "Boston Five" (see below).

Richard Stacewicz Winter Soldiers: An Oral History of the Vietnam Veterans Against the War. New York: Twayne, 1997. xiii, 470 pp. ISBN 0-8057-4579-3. This is presumably very similar to Stacewicz's Ph.D. dissertation of the same title, same year, History, University of Illinois at Chicago. DA 9728557.

Andy Stapp, Up Against the Brass. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1970. 192 pp. While Stapp was serving as a soldier at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, he agitated against the Vietnam War and founded the American Servicemen's Union in an effort to unionize the Army. He was twice court-martialed in 1967, discharged from the Army in 1968.

Franklin Stevens, If This Be Treason: Your Sons Tell Their Own Stories of Why They Won't Fight for Their Country. New York: P.H. Wyden, 1970. vii, 243 pp.

I. F. Stone (Isidor F. Stone, 1907-1989) was an aggressively competent left-wing journalist who had a great influence on the anti-war movement.

James Strahs, Seed Journal. New York: Harper & Row, 1973. Account by a draft dodger.

Jeremy Suri, ed., The Global Revolutions of 1968. New York: Norton, 2007. xxiii, 350 pp. An interesting collection, with a pretty good subject index at the end. About half of this is documents actually dating from 1968, and about half is documents presented as background, going back to 1956, and showing the aftermath as far forward as the late 1970s.

David S. Surrey, Choice of Conscience: Vietnam Era Military and Draft Resisters in Canada. New York: Praeger, 1982.  xi, 207 pp.

Matthew Sweet, Operation Chaos: The Vietnam Deserters who Fought the CIA, the Brainwashers, and Themselves. Holt, 2018. 384 pp.

Amy Swerdlow, Women Strike for Peace: Traditional Motherhood and Radical Politics in the 1960s. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. xv, 310 pp.

Telford Taylor, Nuremberg and Vietnam: An American Tragedy. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1970. 224 pp. General Taylor, who had been a prosecutor at Nuremberg, was very critical of American behavior in Vietnam. But he specifically stated (p. 142) that he did not see a good basis for charges of war crimes in connection with U.S. bombing of North Vietnam. This has become particularly relevant since the emergence of a story, which I do not believe, that Taylor said in 1966 that he did favor trying U.S. pilots who had been bombing North Vietnam as war criminals. (See Robert Richter, McCain and Rolling Thunder: War Hero or War Criminal? CounterPunch, October 14, 2008).

Massimo Teodori, ed., The New Left: A Documentary History. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1969. xiv, 501 pp.

James W. Tollefson, The Strength Not to Fight: An Oral History of Conscientious Objectors of the Vietnam War. Boston: Little, Brown, 1993. Tollefson was himself a CO during the war.

Donald Wayne Turner, "'I Ain't Marchin' Anymore': The Rhetorical Potential of Anti-War Song Lyrics During the Vietnam Conflict for the 'New Left'." Ph.D. dissertation, Speech Communication, Pennsylvania State University, 1982. 334 pp. AAT 8228949.

Michael Uhl, "A Regular Guy: The Antiwar Memoir of a Vietnam Vet." Ph.D dissertation, American Studies, Union Institute and University, 2002. 672 pp. AAT 3046263. A bit more than 100 pages cover Uhl's service in Vietnam. After ROTC at Georgetown University, he was commissioned and trained in counterintelligence. He arrived in Vietnam in November 1968, and as a newly promoted 1st lieutenant was assigned to command the 1st Military Intelligence Team (assigned to the 11th Infantry Brigade) of the 52nd Military Intelligence Detachment (assigned to the Americal Division). Most of the thesis deals with his participation in the anti-war movement later. He was one of the leaders of Citizens' Commission of Inquiry (CCI), which worked to publicize American atrocities in Vietnam, and later of Citizen Soldier.

Michael Uhl, Vietnam Awakening: My Journey from Combat to the Citizens' Commission of Inquiry on U.S. War Crimes in Vietnam. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2007. viii, 255 pp. Uhl was promoted to 1st Lt. just as he arrived in Vietnam in November 1968, assigned to the counterintelligence section of the military intelligence detachment of the 11th Infantry Brigade, Americal Division, based at LZ Bronco, adjacent to Duc Pho, Quang Ngai province. Some discussion of atrocities such as the use of electric shock torture in interrogation. He left Vietnam in April 1969, diagnosed with tuberculosis. Soon he was a grad student at New York University, and promptly joined the anti-war movement.

Michael Uhl, The War I Survived Was Vietnam: Collected Writings of a Veteran and Antiwar Activist. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2016. 290 pp.

Irwin Unger, with Debi Unger, The Movement: A History of the American New Left, 1959-1972. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1974. viii, 217 pp. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1988. viii, 217 pp.

Michael Useem, Conscription, Protest and Social Conflict: The Life and Death of a Draft Resistance Movement. New York: Wiley, 1973. xx, 329 pp.

The U.S. in Vietnam . . . A Critical Look at the Basic Arguments Supporting America's Vietnam Policy . . . San Francisco: American Friends Service Committee, 1966. 29 pp. The text has been placed on-line in the Virtual Vietnam Archive of the Vietnam Project, at Texas Tech University.

Vietnam Veterans against the War, The Winter Soldier Investigation: An Inquiry into American War Crimes. Boston: Beacon Press, 1972. xv, 188 pp.

Sandy Vogelgesang, The Long Dark Night of the Soul: The American Intellectual Left and the Vietnam War. New York: Harper & Row, 1974. 249 pp.

Ken Wachsberger, Voices from the Underground : Insiders Histories of the Vietnam Era Underground Press. Pierian Press, 1992.

Ken Wachsberger, ed., Voices from the Underground : A Directory of Resources and Sources on the Vietnam Era Underground Press, vols 1, 2. Incredible Librarian Books, 1993.

Ken Wachsberger, ed., Insider Histories of the Vietnam Era Underground Press, 2 vols. East Lansing: Michigan State University press, 2011.

Michael Walsh, Walsh's War: A Very Different Path Through Vietnam. Meadville, PA: Christian Faith Publishing, 2021. 160 pp. Walsh arrived in Vietnam in November 1967, assigned to the 1/506 Infantry, 101st Airborne Division. He soon turned so strongly against the war that he refused to carry a rifle.

War/Peace Report. Published by the Center for War/Peace Studies of the New York Friends Group (Quakers). This was devoted to war/peace issues in general, with a lot of attention to the role of the United Nations; it was not specifically focused on Vietnam, though it did pay attention to Vietnam. A couple of issues have been placed on-line in the Virtual Vietnam Archive of the Vietnam Project, at Texas Tech University:

William Warbey, Vietnam: The Truth. London: Merlin, 1965. 176 pp. Warbey was a Member of Parliament for the left wing of the Labour Party, and a quite radical opponent of the Vietnam War.

Larry G. Waterhouse and Mariann G. Wizard, Turning the Guns Around: Notes on the GI Movement. New York: Praeger, 1971. vii, 211 pp.

John M. Wells with Maria Wilhelm, foreword by William Fulbright, The People vs. Presidential War. New York: Dunellen, 1970.

Tom Wells, with a foreword by Todd Gitlin, The War Within: America's Battle over Vietnam. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994. xviii, 706 pp. pb New York: Holt, 1996. xx, 706 pp.

Thomas Weyant, Peace in the Mountains: Northern Appalachian Students Protest the Vietnam War. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2020. xviii, 252 pp. The focus is on the University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, and Ohio University.

Tom Wilber and Jerry Lembcke, Dissenting POWs: From Vietnam's Hoa Lo Prison to American Today. New York: Monthly Review Press, 2021. 160 pp.

Roger N. Williams, The New Exiles: American War Resisters in Canada. New York: Liveright, 1971. Foreword by William Sloane Coffin, Jr. xiii, 401 pp.

S. Brian Willson, Dont Thank Me for My Service: My Viet Nam Awakening to the Long History of US Lies. Atlanta, GA: Clarity Press, 2018. Willson turned against the war while serving as an officer in USAF Combat Security Police, guarding air bases at Binh Thuy, Phan Rang, and perhaps other locations, in 1969.

E. Raymond Wilson, Uphill for Peace: Quaker Impact on Congress. Richmond, Indiana: Friends United Press, 1975. xx, 432 pp.

Randall B. Woods, ed., Vietnam and the American Political Tradition: The Politics of Dissent. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. vii, 324 pp.

Norma Sue Woodstone, Up Against the War. New York: Tower Publications, 1970. 187pp.

Judy Tzu-Chun Wu, Radicals on the Road: Internationalism, Orientalism, and Feminism during the Vietnam Era. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2013. 352 pp. A lot of this deals with American radicals who visited Hanoi during the war.

Nancy Zaroulis & Gerald Sullivan, Who Spoke Up? American Protest against the War in Vietnam, 1963-1975. New York: Doubleday, 1984. xiv, 460 pp. This is the best overall history of the antiwar movement of which I am aware, the one I usually go to when I need to look something up.

Walter Zelman, "Senate Dissent and the Vietnam War, 1964-1968". Ph.D. dissertation, University of California at Los Angeles, 1971.

David Zierler, "Inventing Ecocide: Agent Orange, Antiwar Protest and Environmental Destruction in Vietnam." Ph.D. dissertation, Temple University, 2008. vi, 308 pp. AAT 3319994.

Howard Zinn, a left-wing political scientist teaching at Boston University, was one of the strongest academic voices against the Vietnam War.

For draft resistance and conscientious objectors, see The Draft, and Personnel Issues.

For works by and about important congressional critics of the war, including Senators Frank Church, William Fulbright, Ernest Gruening, and Wayne Morse, see U. S. Policy.


Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)

SDS, a minor organization in the early 1960s, grew dramatically when it became the main student organization opposing the Vietnam War. For a number of years its internal factions managed to get along with one another remarkably well, but they finally tore it apart in 1969. One of those factions then became the Weather Underground (see below)

Alan Adelson, SDS. New York: Scribner, 1972. xii, 276 pp.

David Barber, A Hard Rain Fell: SDS and Why It Failed. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2008. xi, 286 pp.

Bruce Dancis, Resister: A Story of Protest and Prison during the Vietnam War. Ithaca: cornell University Press, 2014. 384 pp. Dancis, a leader of SDS at Cornell University, was among the first young men publicly to destroy his draft card, and was imprisoned for 19 months.

Tom Hayden was a top leader of SDS in the early 1960s, and a leading anti-war activist. He was one of the defendants in the trial of the "Chicago Seven" in connection with protests at the Democratic Party Convention of 1968, in Chicago (see below). His papers (I believe this is a rather large collection, about 120 boxes) had been donated to the Labadie Collection at the University of Michigan Library.

G. Louis Heath, ed., Vandals in the Bomb Factory: The History and Literature of the Students for a Democratic Society. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1976. xiii, 485 pp.

Martin Klimke, The Other Alliance: Student Protest in West Germany and the United States in the Global Sixties. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010. xvi, 346 pp. Looks at relations between the American SDS and the Socialist German Student Union.

James Miller, Democracy is in the Streets: From Port Huron to the Siege of Chicago. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1987. 431 pp. Reissued with a new preface by the author, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994. Miller was a member of SDS, but I get the impression this is more a history than a memoir.

New Left Notes was the newsletter of SDS. (Successor to Students for a Democratic Society Bulletin.) Fifteen issues have been made available online, some more conveniently accessible than others, in an online SDS archive. A sample:

Carl Oglesby, Ravens in the Storm: A Personal History of the 1960s Antiwar Movement. New York: Scribner, 2008. xiv, 336 pp. Oglesby became president of SDS in June 1965.

Robert Pardun, Prairie Radical: A Journey Through the Sixties. Los Gatos, CA: Shire Press, 2001. 376 pp.

Kirkpatrick Sale, SDS. New York: Random House, 1973. 752 pp.

SDS Regional Newsletter. Published in San Francisco; I am not sure how wide a region it covered. A number of issues have been placed online by the University of California Libraries in calisphere. For example:

Students for a Democratic Society Bulletin. (Later renamed New Left Notes.) A number of issues have been placed online, some by the University of California Libraries in calisphere, some in other locations. There is a listing with links on an SDS page. A sample:


The Weather Underground

After SDS broke up in 1969, one portion of it, which had been known as the National Office Faction, evolved into a semi-terrorist group (they set off a bunch of bombs, but tried to avoid setting them off at times and places were someone would actually be killed) initially known as the Weathermen, later the Weather Underground.

Bill Ayers, Fugitive Days: A Memoir. Boston: Beacon Press, 2001. 295 pp. Ayers, a member of the Weather Underground who (along with his wife Bernardine Dohrn) was a fugitive until 1981, is now a professor of education at the University of Illinois. This memoir is not particularly apologetic for the violence of the Weather Underground.

Dan Berger, Outlaws of America: The Weather Underground and the Politics of Solidarity. xv, 432 pp. Oakland, California: AK Press, 2006. Based on extensive interviews. I have not seen this, but my impression is that it is a relatively sympathetic picture of the Weather Underground.

Kathy Boudin, daughter of a prominent lawyer, became a leader of SDS around 1968 and of the Weathermen when that group split off from SDS in 1969. She later served a long prison term for an armored car robbery that she and two other members of the Weather Underground committed long after the end of the war, in 1981.

Bryan Burrough, Days of Rage: America's Radical Underground, the FBI, and the Forgotten Age of Revolutionary Violence. New York: Penguin, 2015. 608 pp. The Weather Underground is one of the groups considered.

Bernardine Dohrn, Bill Ayers, and Jeff Jones, eds., Sing a Battle Song: The Revolutionary Poetry, Statements, and Communiques of the Weather Underground, 1970-1974. Seven Stories Press, 2006. New York: ix, 389 pp.

Arthur M. Eckstein, Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground Beat the FBI and Lost the Revolution. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016. 360 pp.

Helen Garvy, Rebels with a Cause: A Collective Memoir of the Hopes, Rebellions and Repression of the 1960s. Los Gatos, CA: Shire Press, 2007. 258 pp.

David Gilbert, Love and Struggle: My Life in the Weather Underground, and Beyond. PM Press, 2011. 384 pp.

Larry Grathwohl, as told to Frank Reagan, Bringing Down America: An FBI Informer with the Weathermen. New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1976. 191 pp. 2d ed. CreateSpace, 2013. 224 pp. The back cover blurb, with its extravagant exaggeration of the extent to which former members of the Weather Underground have risen to powerful positions in American life, has not encouraged me to trust the book.

Ron Jacobs, The Way the Wind Blew: A History of the Weather Underground. London and New York: Verso, 1997. viii, 216 pp.

Thai Jones, A Radical Line: From the Labor Movement to the Weather Underground, One Family's Century of Conscience. New York: Free Press, 2004. 321 pp. The author's parents, Jeff Jones and Eleanor Stein, were both in the Weather Underground and had been raised in radical (pacifist and Communist respectively) households.

Jonathan Lerner, Swords in the Hands of Children: Reflections of an American Revolutionary. O/R Books (forthcoming). Lerner was "miniser of propaganda" for the Weather Underground.

Cril Payne, Deep Cover: An FBI Agent Infiltrates the Radical Underground. New York: Newsweek Books, 1979. 348 pp.

Prairie Fire: The Politics of Revolutioanary Anti-Imperialism: The Political Statement of the Weather Underground. San Francisco: Communications Co., 1974. 186 pp.

Mark Rudd, Underground: My Life with SDS and the Weathermen. New York: William Morrow (HarperCollins), 2009. x, 324 pp. Rudd, who first emerged as a significant antiwar leader when a student at Columbia University and a member of SDS, feels in retrospect that the policies of the Weathermen were disastrously misguided.

Susan Stern, edited and with an introduction by Laura Browder, With the Weathermen: The Personal Journal of a Revolutionary Woman. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xxxix, 387 pp.

Jeremy Varon, Bringing the War Home: The Weather Underground, the Red Army Faction, and Revolutionary Violence in the Sixties and Seventies. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. xiii, 394 pp.

Cathy Wilkerson, Flying Close to the Sun: My Life and Times as a Weatherman. New York: Seven Stories Press, 2007. x, 422 pp.

See also Senate Judiciary Committee investigation of the Weather Underground.


The 1968 Chicago Demonstrations, and the Conspiracy Trial

The 1968 Democratic Party Convention was held in Chicago from August 26 to 29. Anti-war protesters converged on the city. The politically conservative and hawkish Chicago Police Department reacted strongly to provocation, in what has sometimes been called a "police riot." Eight men were brought to trial in September 1969, charged with conspiracy to cross state lines with intent to cause a riot. The trial became a circus, with a heavily biased judge confronting disrespectful defendants defended by radical attorneys, including William M. Kunstler. Initially the defendants were the "Chicago Eight"; they shrank to the "Chicago Seven" when Judge Julius Hoffman declared a mistrial on the conspiracy charges against Bobby Seale, a leader of the Black Panther Party, and sentenced Seale to four years imprisonment for contempt of court. The "Chicago Seven" included five significant anti-war leaders--David Dellinger, Tom Hayden (see above under Hayden and Lynd), Rennie Davis, Abbie Hoffman (see above under Hoffman and Raskin), and Jerry Rubin (see above)--and two minor figures, John Froines and Lee Weiner. Froines and Weiner were found innocent; the other five were found guilty of crossing state lines with intent to cause a riot, but not of conspiring to do so. The appeals court that overturned the guilty verdicts, in 1972, criticized Judge Hoffman for his behavior in the trial. Do not confuse the Chicago Seven, or Eight, with the Chicago Fifteen.

"The Chicago Seven Trial: Excerpts from the Trial Transcript" Large sections of the trial transcript, placed online by Douglas O. Linder, School of Law, University of Missouri-Kansas City.

Karen Alonso, The Chicago Seven Political Protest Trial: A Headline Court Case. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow, 2002. 112 pp. Apparently intended for juvenile readers.

Judy Clavir and John Spitzer, eds., The Conspiracy Trial. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1970. xvi, 615 pp. Trial transcripts and a few other documents relating to the trial of the "Chicago Seven" in connection with anti-war protests at the Democratic Party Convention of 1968 in Chicago.

Contempt: transcript of the contempt citations, sentences, and responses of the Chicago conspiracy 10. Chicago: Swallow Press, 1970. xxviii, 254 pp. Foreword by Ramsey Clark; introduction by Harry Kalven, Jr.

Edwin Diamond, "Chicago press: rebellion and retrenchment." Columbia Journalism Review, VII:3 (Fall 1968), pp. 1-17.

Jason Epstein, "The Chicago Conspiracy Trial: Allen Ginsberg on the Stand." New York Review of Books, February 12, 1970.

Jason Epstein, "A Special Supplement: The Trial of Bobby Seale". New York Review of Books, December 4, 1969. Includes a transcript of court proceedings from November 5, 1969.

Jason Epstein, The Great Conspiracy Trial: An Essay on Law, Liberty, and the Constitution. New York: Random House, 1970. 433 pp. The trial of the "Chicago Seven," in connection with anti-war protests at the Democratic Party Convention of 1968 in Chicago.

Abbie Hoffman, John Froines, David Dellinger, Tom Hayden, Rennie Davis, Jerry Rubin, Lee Weiner, and Bobby Seale, The Conspiracy. New York: Dell, 1969. 224 pp. Introduction by Noam Chomsky.

Arthur Kinoy, Helene Schwartz, and Doris Peterson, Conspiracy on appeal: appellate brief on behalf of the Chicago Eight. New York, Center for Constitutional Rights; distributed by Agathon Publication Services, 1971. xxiv, 547 pp.

Mark L. Levine, George C. McNamee, and Daniel L. Greenberg, eds., The Tales of Hoffman. Introduction by Dwight Macdonald. New York: Bantam, 1970. xxvi, 286 pp. Excerpts from the transcript of the trial of the "Chicago Seven" (David Dellinger and others), in connection with demonstrations at the Democratic Party Convention of 1968 in Chicago. Judge Julius J. Hoffman had been spectacularly hostile to the defendants.

J. Anthony Lukas, The Barnyard Epithet and Other Obscenities: Notes on the Chicago Conspiracy Trial. New York: Harper & Row, 1970. viii, 107 pp.

Norman Mailer, Miami and the Siege of Chicago: An Informal History of the Republican and Democratic Conventions of 1968. New York: New American Library, 1968. 288 pp.

James Miller, Democracy is in the Streets: From Port Huron to the Siege of Chicago. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1987. 431 pp. Reissued with a new preface by the author, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994. Miller was a member of SDS, but I get the impression this is more a history than a memoir.

John Sack, "In a Pig's Eye," Esquire, November 1968, pp. 91-94. The violence at the 1968 Democratic Party Convention in Chicago.

John Schultz, Motion Will Be Denied: A New Report on the Chicago Conspiracy Trial. New York: Morrow, 1972. 376 pp.

John Schultz, The Chicago Conspiracy Trial. New York: Da Capo, 1993. xiii, 401 pp. This is a revised edition, with a new introduction by Carl Oglesby, of the previous item. The book has recently been reprinted: Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009. xiii, 401 pp.

John Schultz, No one was killed: Documentation and meditation: Convention Week, Chicago--August 1968. Chicago: Big Table, 1969. 310 pp. There has recently been a revised edition, with foreword by Todd Gitlin: No One War Killed: The Democratic National Convention, August 1968. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009. xii, 307 pp.

Terry Southern, "Grooving in Chi". Esquire, November 1968, pp. 83-86. The violence at the 1968 Democratic Party Convention in Chicago.

John Wiener, ed., Conspiracy in the Streets: The Extraordinary Trial of the Chicago Eight. New York: New Press, 2006.

Jules Witcover, "The press and Chicago: the truth hurt." Columbia Journalism Review, VII:3 (Fall 1968), pp. 5-8.

See also HUAC hearings titled Subversive Involvement in Disruption of 1968 Democratic Party National Convention, with testimony by Tom Hayden, Rennie Davis, David Dellinger, and Robert Greenblatt.


Other Famous Trials

Captain Howard B. Levy, M.D. was a U.S. Army doctor who refused to train Special Forces medics in dermatology. He believed that the Special Forces were so involved in war crimes in Vietnam that it would be improper for him to give them any training of any kind. A court-martial convicted him of willfully disobeying a lawful order, and trying to promote disloyalty and disaffection among the troops, on June 2, 1967, and sentenced him to three years at hard labor.

Andrew Kopkind, "Doctor's Plot." New York Review of Books, June 29, 1967. (Reprinted in Trials of the Resistance.)

Andrew Kopkind, "The Trial of Captain Levy: II." New York Review of Books, April 11, 1968. (Reprinted in Trials of the Resistance.)

Howard Levy and David Miller, Going to Jail: The Political Prisoner. New York: Grove Press, 1970. Levy was an Army doctor who was court-martialled for refusing to train Special Forces troops; Miller was a Catholic and an extreme pacifist, who burned his draft card.

Robert N. Strassfield, "The Vietnam War on Trial: Court Martial of Dr. Howard B. Levy." Wisconsin Law Review 4: 1994: 839-963.


The "Boston Five," Dr. Benjamin Spock, Rev. William Sloane Coffin, Mitchell Goodman, Michael Ferber, and Marcus Raskin, were indicted on January 5, 1968, for conspiracy to counsel draft evasion. All but Raskin were convicted June 14, 1968, but the convictions were overturned on appeal in 1969.

Michael Ferber, "On Being Indicted." New York Review of Books, April 25, 1968. (Reprinted in Trials of the Resistance.)

Florence Howe, Noam Chomsky, and Paul Lauter, "Reflections on a Political Trial". New York Review of Books, August 22, 1968.

Irene R. Michalek, When Mercy Seasons Justice: The Spock Trial. Boston: Branden Press, 1972. 134 pp.

Jessica Mitford, The Trial of Dr. Spock, William Sloane Coffin, Michael Ferber, Mitchell Goodman, and Marcus Raskin. New York: Knopf, 1969. x, 272 pp.

Herbert L. Packer, "The Conspiracy Weapon." New York Review of Books, November 6, 1969. A review of Jessica Mitford's book (above). (Reprinted in Trials of the Resistance.)


The "Chicago Fifteen" destroyed a large quantity of documents at a Chicago draft board on May 25, 1969. Most of them went on trial May 4, 1970.

Chicago 15 Defense Committee, letter appealing for funds and public support, May 1970, online in the Virtual Vietnam Archive of the Vietnam Project, at Texas Tech University.


For the trials of the "Catonsville Nine," the "Harrisburg Seven," and the "Camden 28," see The Catholic Antiwar Movement.

See also The Pentagon Papers Case.


The Kent State Incident, 1970

On May 4, 1970, during the violent protests triggered by the Cambodian incursion, Ohio National Guardsmen killed four students and wounded nine on the campus of Kent State University, Kent, Ohio.

Carole A. Barbato, Laura L. Davis, and Mark F. Seeman, This We Know: A Chronology of the Shootings at Kent State, May 1970. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 2012. 43 pp.

Carole A. Barbato and Laura L. Davis, eds., Democratic Narrative, History, and Memory. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 2012. 264 pp. Includes several essays on the Kent State shootings.

Scott L. Bills, ed., Kent State/May 4: Echoes Through a Decade. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1982. xiv, 304 pp. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1998. xxviii, 320 pp.

Philip Caputo, 13 Seconds: A Look Back at the Kent State Shootings. New York: Chamberlain Bros., 2005. 198 pp.

Ottavio M. Casale and Louis Paskoff, eds., The Kent Affair: Documents and Interpretations. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1971. xii, 260 pp.

Jenny Deason Copeland, Tiananmen West: Why Nixon Ordered the Kent State Massacre. West Bloomfield, MI: Crazy Red Head Publishing, 2016. xxviii, 388 pp. An implausible suggestion.

Peter Davies et. al., The Truth About Kent State: A Challenge to the American Conscience. New York: Farrar, Straux, Giroux, 1973. ix, 241 pp.

Arlene Erlbach, Kent State. New York: Children's Press, 1998. 30 pp. I haven't seen this; I boggle a bit at the thought of a book on Kent State addressed to juvenile readers.

Joe Eszterhas and Michael D. Roberts, Thirteen Seconds: Confrontation at Kent State. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1970. 308 pp.

William A. Gordon, The Fourth of May: Killings and Coverups at Kent State. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus, 1990. 243 pp. Revised version published as Four Dead in Ohio: Was there a Conspiracy at Kent State? Laguna Hills, CA: North Ridge Books, 1995. 301 pp.

Thomas M. Grace, Kent State: Death and Dissent in the Long Sixties. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2016. 384 pp. Grace, who was himself wounded in the Kent State shooting, places that incident in the context of dissent at other universities.

Edward J. Grant and Michael H. Hill, I Was There: What Really Went on at Kent State, as Told by Former Ohio National Guardsmen Ed Grant and Mike Hill. Lima, Ohio: C.S.S. Publishing Co., 1974. 140 pp.

Thomas R. Hensley and Jerry M. Lewis, eds., Kent State and May 4th: A Social Science Perspective. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1978. v, 167 pp. 2nd ed. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 2000. v, 219 pp. 3rd ed. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 2010 (forthcoming).

Thomas R. Hensley, with James J. Best, The Kent State Incident: Impact of Judicial Process on Public Attitudes. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1981. xiv, 281 pp.

Joseph Kelner, The Kent State Coverup. New York: Harper & Row, 1980. x, 305 pp.

Howard Means, 67 Shots: Kent State and the End of American Innocence. Boston: DaCapo, 2016. x, 261 pp.

James A. Michener, Kent State: What Happened and Why. New York: Random House, 1971. xii, 559 pp.

Report of the President's Commission on Campus Unrest. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1970. x, 537 pp. (It was often called the "Scranton Commission" after its chairman, William Scranton.) The 1970 incident at Kent State University is covered on pp. 233-290. The complete text, but not the huge collection of photos relating to the Kent State incident (pp. 291-410), is online.

Craig S. Simpson and Gregory S. Wilson, Above The Shots: An Oral History of the Kent State Shootings. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 2016. xi, 254 pp.

I.F. Stone [see above], "Fabricated Evidence in the Kent State Killings," New York Review of Books 15:10 (December 3, 1970).

I.F. Stone, The Killings at Kent State; How Murder Went Unpunished. New York: New York Review/Vintage Books, 1971. 158 pp.

Stuart Taylor et. al., Violence at Kent State, May 1 to 4, 1970: The Students' Perspective. New York: College Notes & Texts, 1971. 195 pp.

Phillip K. Tompkins and Elaine Vanden Bout Anderson, Communication Crisis at Kent State: A Case Study. New York: Gordon and Breach, 1971. xvi, 153 pp.

Bill Warren, ed., The Middle of the Country: The Events of May 4th as Seen by Students and Faculty at Kent State University. New York: Avon, 1970. 160 pp.


The Catholic Anti-war Movement (next section)

Public Opinion

Congressional Committee Documentation on the Antiwar Movement

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Copyright © 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021, Edwin E. Moise. This document may be reproduced only by permission. Revised October 14, 2021.