Sunni vs. Shi'a
Strongly religious (including fundamentalist) vs. Secular
Shiite (Shi'i) Arabs
Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani
632: The Prophet Muhammad, founder of Islam, died. Abu Bakr, his father-in-law, became the first Caliph.
656-661: Ali, husband of Muhammad’s daughter Fatima, was the 4th Caliph.
661-680: Mu’awiya, who was not a member of the Prophet's family, was Caliphs. He shifted the capital of the growing Muslim empire to Damascus.
680: Husayn, second son of Ali, was killed at Karbala.